Concurrency Can’t Be Observed, Asynchronously

  • Paolo Baldan
  • Filippo Bonchi
  • Fabio Gadducci
  • Giacoma Valentina Monreale
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6461)


The paper is devoted to an analysis of the concurrent features of asynchronous systems. A preliminary step is represented by the introduction of a non-interleaving extension of barbed equivalence. This notion is then exploited in order to prove that concurrency cannot be observed through asynchronous interactions, i.e., that the interleaving and concurrent versions of a suitable asynchronous weak equivalence actually coincide. The theory is validated on two case studies, related to nominal calculi (π-calculus) and visual specification formalisms (Petri nets).


Parallel Composition Label Transition System Asynchronous Communication Open Place Concrete Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Amadio, R.M., Castellani, I., Sangiorgi, D.: On bisimulations for the asynchronous π-calculus. In: Sassone, V., Montanari, U. (eds.) CONCUR 1996. LNCS, vol. 1119, pp. 147–162. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baldan, P., Bonchi, F., Gadducci, F.: Encoding asynchronous interactions using open Petri nets. In: Bravetti, M., Zavattaro, G. (eds.) CONCUR 2009. LNCS, vol. 5710, pp. 99–114. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baldan, P., Corradini, A., Ehrig, H., Heckel, R.: Compositional semantics for open Petri nets based on deterministic processes. Math. Str. in Comp. Sci 15(1), 1–35 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beauxis, R., Palamidessi, C., Valencia, F.D.: On the asynchronous nature of the asynchronous π-calculus. In: Degano, P., De Nicola, R., Meseguer, J. (eds.) Concurrency, Graphs and Models. LNCS, vol. 5065, pp. 473–492. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bergstra, J.A., Klop, J.W., Tucker, J.V.: Process algebra with asynchronous communication mechanisms. In: Brookes, S., Roscoe, A.W., Winskel, G. (eds.) Seminar on Concurrency. LNCS, vol. 197, pp. 76–95. Springer, Heidelberg (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    de Boer, F.S., Klop, J.W., Palamidessi, C.: Asynchronous communication in process algebra. In: LICS 1992, pp. 137–147. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (1992)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bonchi, F., Gadducci, F., Monreale, G.V.: On barbs and labels in reactive systems. In: Klin, B., Sobociński, P. (eds.) SOS 2009. EPTCS, vol. 18, pp. 46–61 (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boreale, M., Sangiorgi, D.: Some congruence properties for π-calculus bisimilarities. Theor. Comp. Sci. 198(1-2), 159–176 (1998)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boudol, G.: Asynchrony and the π-calculus. Tech. Rep. 1702, INRIA (1992)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boudol, G., Castellani, I., Hennessy, M., Kiehn, A.: Observing localities. In: Tarlecki, A. (ed.) MFCS 1991. LNCS, vol. 520, pp. 93–102. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bruni, R., Melgratti, H.C., Montanari, U.: Event structure semantics for dynamic graph grammars. ECEASST 2 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Busi, N., Gorrieri, R.: A Petri net semantics for π-calculus. In: Lee, I., Smolka, S.A. (eds.) CONCUR 1995. LNCS, vol. 962, pp. 145–159. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Busi, N., Gorrieri, R., Zavattaro, G.: Comparing three semantics for linda-like languages. Theor. Comp. Sci. 240(1), 49–90 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cardelli, L., Gordon, A.D.: Mobile ambients. Theor. Comp. Sci. 240(1), 177–213 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crafa, S., Varacca, D., Yoshida, N.: Compositional event structure semantics for the internal π-calculus. In: Caires, L., Vasconcelos, V.T. (eds.) CONCUR 2007. LNCS, vol. 4703, pp. 317–332. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Darondeau, P., Degano, P.: Causal trees. In: Ronchi Della Rocca, S., Ausiello, G., Dezani-Ciancaglini, M. (eds.) ICALP 1989. LNCS, vol. 372, pp. 234–248. Springer, Heidelberg (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Degano, P., Nicola, R.D., Montanari, U.: Partial orderings descriptions and observations of nondeterministic concurrent processes. In: de Bakker, J.W., de Roever, W.-P., Rozenberg, G. (eds.) REX Workshop. LNCS, vol. 354, pp. 438–466. Springer, Heidelberg (1989)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fournet, C., Gonthier, G.: The reflexive CHAM and the Join-calculus. In: POPL 1996, pp. 372–385. ACM Press, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fournet, C., Gonthier, G.: A hierarchy of equivalences for asynchronous calculi. J. Log. Algebr. Program. 63(1), 131–173 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    van Glabbeek, R.J.: The linear time-branching time spectrum. In: Baeten, J.C.M., Klop, J.W. (eds.) CONCUR 1990. LNCS, vol. 458, pp. 278–297. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Glabbeek, R.J., Goltz, U.: Equivalence notions for concurrent systems and refinement of actions. In: Kreczmar, A., Mirkowska, G. (eds.) MFCS 1989. LNCS, vol. 379, pp. 237–248. Springer, Heidelberg (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    van Glabbeek, R.J., Goltz, U., Schicke, J.W.: Symmetric and asymmetric asynchronous interaction. In: Bonchi, F., Grohmann, D., Spoletini, P., Troina, A., Tuosto, E. (eds.) ICE 2008. ENTCS, vol. 229(3), pp. 77–95. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    van Glabbeek, R.J., Vaandrager, F.W.: Petri net models for algebraic theories of concurrency. In: de Bakker, J.W., Nijman, A.J., Treleaven, P.C. (eds.) PARLE 1987. LNCS, vol. 259, pp. 224–242. Springer, Heidelberg (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gorla, D.: Towards a unified approach to encodability and separation results for process calculi. In: van Breugel, F., Chechik, M. (eds.) CONCUR 2008. LNCS, vol. 5201, pp. 492–507. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Honda, K., Tokoro, M.: An object calculus for asynchronous communication. In: America, P. (ed.) ECOOP 1991. LNCS, vol. 512, pp. 133–147. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Honda, K., Yoshida, N.: On reduction-based process semantics. Theor. Comp. Sci. 151(2), 437–486 (1995)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kindler, E.: A compositional partial order semantics for Petri net components. In: Azéma, P., Balbo, G. (eds.) ICATPN 1997. LNCS, vol. 1248, pp. 235–252. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lanese, I.: Concurrent and located synchronizations in π-calculus. In: van Leeuwen, J., Italiano, G.F., van der Hoek, W., Meinel, C., Sack, H., Plášil, F. (eds.) SOFSEM 2007. LNCS, vol. 4362, pp. 388–399. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leifer, J.J., Milner, R.: Deriving bisimulation congruences for reactive systems. In: Palamidessi, C. (ed.) CONCUR 2000. LNCS, vol. 1877, pp. 243–258. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Merro, M., Nardelli, F.Z.: Bisimulation proof methods for mobile ambients. In: Baeten, J.C.M., et al. (eds.) ICALP 2003. LNCS, vol. 2719, pp. 584–598. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Milner, R.: Communication and Concurrency. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1989)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Milner, R.: Communicating and Mobile Systems: the π-Calculus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1999)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Milner, R., Sangiorgi, D.: Barbed bisimulation. In: Kuich, W. (ed.) ICALP 1992. LNCS, vol. 623, pp. 685–695. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Montanari, U., Pistore, M.: Concurrent semantics for the π-calculus. In: Brookes, S., Main, M., Melton, A., Misolve, M. (eds.) MFPS 1995. ENTCS, vol. 1, Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Palamidessi, C.: Comparing the expressive power of the synchronous and asynchronous π-calculi. Math. Str. in Comp. Sci. 13(5), 685–719 (2003)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rathke, J., Sassone, V., Sobociński, P.: Semantic barbs and biorthogonality. In: Seidl, H. (ed.) FOSSACS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4423, pp. 302–316. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sassone, V., Sobociński, P.: A congruence for Petri nets. In: Ehrig, H., Padberg, J., Rozenberg, G. (eds.) PNGT 2004. ENTCS, vol. 127(2), pp. 107–120. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2005)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Selinger, P.: First-order axioms for asynchrony. In: Mazurkiewicz, A., Winkowski, J. (eds.) CONCUR 1997. LNCS, vol. 1243, pp. 376–390. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Baldan
    • 1
  • Filippo Bonchi
    • 2
  • Fabio Gadducci
    • 3
  • Giacoma Valentina Monreale
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Matematica Pura e ApplicataUniversità PadovaItaly
  2. 2.Laboratoire de l’Informatique du ParallélismeENS LyonFrance
  3. 3.Dipartimento di InformaticaUniversità di PisaItaly

Personalised recommendations