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Zusammenfassung

Schlaf kann unmittelbar als ein Verhaltenszustand beschrieben werden, der sich fundamental vom Wachzustand unterscheidet. Schlaf erfullt wichtige biologisch-restorative – einschlie.lich neuroendokrinologische und immunologische – sowie neurokognitive und emotional-stabilisierende Funktionen. Der Mensch verbringt ungefahr ein Drittel seiner Lebenszeit mit Schlafen. Die durchschnittliche Schlafdauer hat sich allerdings seit Anfang des letzten Jahrhunderts um 2 Stunden verkurzt. Laut US-amerikanischen Untersuchungen ist dies vor allem wegen eines fruhen Arbeitsbeginns, langer Arbeitswege und abendlichem Fernsehkonsum begingt (Basner u. Dinges 2009). Die Reduktion der durchschnittlichen Schlafdauer ist in der 24-Stunden-Gesellschaft zur Norm geworden. Andererseits kann die Schlafdauer nicht uber langere Zeit unter eine kritische Zahl von 6–7 Stunden gesenkt werden, ohne dass gesundheitliche Probleme auft reten. Gro.e epidemiologische Studien zeigen, dass eine verkurzte Schlafdauer ein prospektiver Risikofaktor fur kardiovaskulare Morbiditat und erhohte Gesamtmortalitat darstellt (Gallicchio u. Kalesan 2009). Die Inzidenz fur Diabetes, das metabolische Syndrom und Ubergewicht ist bei einer Schlaf dauer unter 6 Stunden ebenfalls erhoht. Interessanterweise ist mehr Schlaf nicht einfach gesunder, indem eine durchschnittliche Schlafdauer von uber 8 Stunden das Sterblichkeitsrisiko ebenfalls erhoht. Der Zusammenhang zwischen der Schlafdauer und erhohtem Morbiditats-und Mortalitatsrisiko scheint teilweise direkt durch mit dem Schlaf assoziierte neuroendokrinologische und immunologische Prozesse vermittelt zu sein und somit unabhangig von einer Vielzahl vom Variablen, welche die korperliche und psychische Gesundheit ebenfalls beeinflussen.

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von Känel, R. (2011). Normaler und gestörter Schlaf. In: Ehlert, U., von Känel, R. (eds) Psychoendokrinologie und Psychoimmunologie. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16964-9_13

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16964-9_13

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