Measuring the Closed-Loop Throughput of 2x2 HSDPA over TX Power and TX Antenna Spacing

  • Sebastian Caban
  • José A. García-Naya
  • Christian Mehlführer
  • Luis Castedo
  • Markus Rupp
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 45)


Mobile network operators demand small base station antennas and high physical layer throughputs. In the downlink, high physical layer throughputs can be achieved by exploiting transmit diversity. Given that the correlation between different propagation paths reduces the achievable throughput, it is commonly conjectured that the greater the transmit antenna spacing, the better the radio link performance. The open question is, how much does the throughput of a communication system actually change over antenna spacing?

We answer this question by closed-loop throughput measurements at 2.5 GHz for standard compliant 2× 2 HSDPA in a realistic, urban, outdoor scenario. The results are presented in terms of physical layer throughput over TX antenna spacing and TX power. We arrive at the somehow surprising conclusion that, for typical TX power values and typical antenna spacings, the throughput remains approximately independent with respect to the antenna spacing.


Antenna diversity Antenna spacing Measurement MIMO systems Radio communications HSDPA 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    3GPP. Tech. spec. group radio access network, physical layer procedures (FDD) (Tech. Spec. 25.214 V7.7.0) (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Landre, J.B., Saadani, A.: HSDPA 14.4 Mbps mobiles - realistic throughputs evaluation. In: Proc. of VTC 2008, Spring, pp. 2086–2090 (2008), doi:10.1109/VETECS.2008.468Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holma, H., Reunanen, J.: 3GPP release 5 HSDPA measurements. In: Proc. PIMRC 2006 (2006), doi:10.1109/PIMRC.2006.254116Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Riback, M., Grant, S., Jongren, G., Tynderfeldt, T., Cairns, D., Fulghum, T.: MIMO-HSPA testbed performance measurements. In: Proc. PIMRC 2007 (2007), doi:10.1109/PIMRC.2007.4394434Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mehlfühurer, C., Caban, S., Rupp, M.: MIMO HSDPA throughput measurement results in an urban scenario. In: Proc. 70th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2009-Fall), Anchorage, AK, USA (2009), doi: 10.1109/VETECF.2009.5378994,
  6. 6.
    García-Naya, J.A., Mehlführer, C., Caban, S., Rupp, M., Castedo, L.: Throughput-based antenna selection measurements. In: Proc. 70th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2009-Fall), Anchorage, AK, USA (2009), doi:10.1109/VETECF.2009.5378992,
  7. 7.
    Caban, S., Mehlführer, C., Lechner, G., Rupp, M.: Testbedding MIMO HSDPA and WiMAX. In: Proc. 70th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2009-Fall), Anchorage, AK, USA (2009), doi:10.1109/VETECF.2009.5378995,
  8. 8.
    Lee, W.: Effects on correlation between two mobile radio base-station antennas. IEEE Transactions on Communications 21(11), 1214–1224 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kivinen, J., Zhao, X., Vainikainen, P.: Empirical characterization of wideband indoor radio channel at 5.3 GHz. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 49(8), 1192–1203 (2001), doi:10.1109/8.943314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Medbo, J., Harrysson, F., Asplund, H., Berger, J.E.: Measurements and analysis of a MIMO macrocell outdoor-indoor scenario at 1947 MHz. In: Proc. of VTC 2004 Spring, vol. 1, pp. 261–265 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhao, X., Kivinen, J., Vainikainen, P., Skog, K.: Propagation characteristics for wideband outdoor mobile communications at 5.3 GHz. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 20(3), 507–514 (2002), doi:10.1109/49.995509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jungnickel, V., Pohl, V., von Helmolt, C.: Capacity of MIMO systems with closely spaced antennas. IEEE Communications Letters 7(8), 361–363 (2003), doi:10.1109/LCOMM.2003.815644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Intarapanich, A., Kae, P., Davies, R., Sesay, A., McRory, J.: Spatial correlation measurements for broadband MIMO wireless channels. In: Proc. of VTC 2004 Fall, vol. 1, pp. 52–56 (2004), doi:10.1109/VETECF.2004.1399919Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Skentos, N., Kanatas, A., Pantos, G., Constantinou, P.: Capacity results from short range fixed MIMO measurements at 5.2 GHz in urban propagation environment. In: Proc. of ICC 2004, vol. 5, pp. 3020–3024 (2004), doi:10.1109/ICC.2004.1313086Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chizhik, D., Ling, J., Wolniansky, P., Valenzuela, R., Costa, N., Huber, K.: Multiple-input-multiple-output measurements and modeling in Manhattan. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication 21(3), 321–331 (2003), doi:10.1109/JSAC.2003.809457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kildal, P.S., Rosengren, K.: Correlation and capacity of MIMO systems and mutual coupling, radiation efficiency, and diversity gain of their antennas: simulations and measurements in a reverberation chamber. IEEE Communications Magazine 42(12), 104–112 (2004), doi:10.1109/MCOM.2004.1367562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Medbo, J., Riback, M., Berg, J.E.: Validation of 3GPP spatial channel model including WINNER wideband extension using measurements. In: Proc. of VTC 2006 Fall, pp. 1–5 (2006), doi:10.1109/VTCF.2006.36Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chizhik, D., Rashid-Farrokhi, F., Ling, J., Lozano, A.: Effect of antenna separation on the capacity of BLAST in correlated channels. IEEE Communications Letters 4(11), 337–339 (2000), doi:10.1109/4234.892194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shiu, D.S., Foschini, G., Gans, M., Kahn, J.: Fading correlation and its e ect on the capacity of multielement antenna systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications 48(3), 502–513 (2000), doi:10.1109/26.837052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thushara, D., Rodney, A., Jaunty, T.: On capacity of multi-antenna wireless channels: Effects of antenna separation and spatial correlation. In: 3rd Australian Communications Theory Workshop (AusCTW) (2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Waldschmidt, C., Kuhnert, C., Schulteis, S., Wiesbeck, W.: Analysis of compact arrays for MIMO based on a complete RF system model. In: IEEE Topical Conference on Wireless Communication Technology, pp. 286–287 (2003), doi:10.1109/WCT.2003.1321527Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luo, J., Zeidler, J., McLaughlin, S.: Performance analysis of compact antenna arrays with MRC in correlated nakagami fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 50(1), 267–277 (2001), doi:10.1109/25.917940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Femenias, G.: BER performance of linear STBC from orthogonal designs over MIMO correlated nakagami-m fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 53(2), 307–317 (2004), doi:10.1109/TVT.2004.823475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Caban, S., Mehlführer, C., Mayer, L.W., Rupp, M.: 2x2 MIMO at variable antenna distances. In: Proc. of VTC 2008 Spring, Singapore (2008), doi:10.1109/VETECS.2008.276Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Caban, S., Rupp, M.: Impact of transmit antenna spacing on 2x1 Alamouti radio transmission. Electronics Letters 43(4), 198–199 (2007), doi:10.1049/el:20073153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hunukumbure, R., Beach, M.: Outdoor MIMO measurements for UTRA applications. In: Proc. of EURO-COST 2002 (2002),
  27. 27.
    Trautwein, U., Schneider, C., Thomä, R.: Measurement-based performance evaluation of advanced MIMO transceiver designs. EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 2005(11), 1712–1724 (2005), doi:10.1155/ASP.2005.1712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thomas, T.A., Desai, V., Kepler, J.F.: Experimental MIMO comparisons of a 4-element uniform linear array to an array of two cross polarized antennas at 3.5 GHz. In: Proc. of VTC 2009 Fall (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jungnickel, V., Jaeckel, S., Thiele, L., Krueger, U., Brylka, A., von Helmolt, C.: Capacity measurements in a multicell MIMO system. In: IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, pp. 1–6 (2006), doi:10.1109/GLOCOM. 2006.645Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    (C) (2009), Microsoft Corporation (2009),
  31. 31.
    Mehlführer, C.: Measurement-based performance evaluation of WiMAX and HSDPA. Ph.D. thesis; Vienna University of Technology (2009),
  32. 32.
    Caban, S., Mehlführer, C., Langwieser, R., Scholtz, A.L., Rupp, M.: Vienna MIMO Testbed. EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Article ID 54868 (2006), doi:10.1155/ASP/2006/54868Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mehlführer, C., Caban, S., Rupp, M.: Experimental evaluation of adaptive modulation and coding in MIMO WiMAX with limited feedback. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Article ID 837102 (2008),, doi:10.1155/2008/837102
  34. 34.
    KATHREIN-Werke KG Antenna No. 800 10629 (2010),
  35. 35.
    Kakoyiannis, C., Troubouki, S., Constantinou, P.: Design and implementation of printed multi-element antennas on wireless sensor nodes. In: Proc. of ISWPC 2008, pp. 224–228 (2008), doi:10.1109/ISWPC.2008.4556202.36Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mehlführer, C., Caban, S., Wrulich, M., Rupp, M.: Joint throughput optimized CQI and precoding weight calculation for MIMO HSDPA. In: Conference Record of the Fourtysecond Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers. Pacific Grove, CA, USA (2008),
  37. 37.
    Mehlführer, C., Rupp, M.: Novel tap-wise LMMSE channel estimation for MIMO W-CDMA. In: Proc. 51st IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference 2008 (GLOBECOM 2008), New Orleans, LA, USA (2008),, doi:10.1109/GLOCOM.2008.ECP.829
  38. 38.
    Fisher, R.: The Design of Experiments. Wiley, New York (1935)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cox, D.: Planning of Experiments. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (1958)MATHGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Efron, B., Hinkley, D.V.: An Introduction to The Bootstrap, 1st edn. CRC Monographs on Statistics & Applied Probability, vol. 57. Chapman & Hall, Boca Raton (1994)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastian Caban
    • 1
  • José A. García-Naya
    • 2
  • Christian Mehlführer
    • 1
  • Luis Castedo
    • 2
  • Markus Rupp
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Communications and Radio-Frequency EngineeringVienna University of TechnologyViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and SystemsUniversity of A CoruñaA CoruñaSpain

Personalised recommendations