Importance of Well-Motivated Characters in Interactive Narratives: An Empirical Evaluation

  • Mei Si
  • Stacy Marsella
  • David Pynadath
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6432)

Abstract

In order for the author to create his/her intended effects using interactive narratives, the user has to be able to understand his/her experience as designed by the author. In this paper, we argue that a key desideratum for interactive narrative frameworks is to model the characters’ motivational consistency during the interaction. This work reports an empirical study for evaluating the importance of using well-motivated characters in interactive narratives. The results demonstrate that inconsistency in the characters’ motivations can confuse the user and affect the user’s expectations and interpretations of the events in the story.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bordwell, D., Thompson, K.: Film Art: an introduction, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bruner, J.: Acts of Meaning. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1990)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cavazza, M., Charles, F., Mead, S.J.: Agents’ Interaction in Virtual Storytelling. In: de Antonio, A., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D. (eds.) IVA 2001. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2190, pp. 156–170. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Elsbach, K.D., Barr, P.S.: The effects of mood on individual’s use of structured decision protocols. Organization Science 10, 181–198 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Forgas, J.P.: Mood and Judgment: The Affect Infusion Model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin 117, 39–66 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kelso, M.T., Weyhrauch, P.W., Bates, J.: Dramatic Presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 2, 1–15 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mateas, M., Stern, A.: Integrating Plot, Character and Natural Language Processing in the Interactive Drama Façade. In: The International Conference on Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nelson, K.: Narratives from the Crib. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1989)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nelson, M.J., Roberts, D.L., Isbell, C.L., Mateas, M.: Reinforcement Learning for Declarative OptimizationBased Drama Management. In: AAMAS (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ochs, E., Capps, L.: Living Narrative: Creating Lives in Everyday Storytelling. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Onega, S., Landa, J.A.G.: Narratology: An Introduction. Longman, London (1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Riedl, M.O., Saretto, C.J., Young, R.M.: Managing Interaction Between Users and Agents in a Multi-agent Storytelling Environment. In: AAMAS, pp. 741–748 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Si, M., Marsella, S.C., Pynadath, D.V.: Thespian: Using Multi-Agent Fitting to Craft Interactive Drama. In: AAMAS, pp. 21–28 (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Si, M., Marsella, S.C., Pynadath, D.V.: Directorial Control in a Decision-Theoretic Framework for Interactive Narrative. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, Guimarães, Portugal, pp. 221–233 (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Si, M., Marsella, S.C., Pynadath, D.V.: Evaluating Directorial Control in a Character-Centric Interactive Narrative Framework. In: AAMAS, Toronto, Canada (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Szilas, N.: IDtension: a narrative engine for interactive drama. In: The 1st International Conference on Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment, pp. 14–25 (March 2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wilkens, T., Hughes, A., Wildemuth, B.M., Marchionini, G.: The Role of Narrative in Understanding Digital Video: An Exploratory Analysis. In: The Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, pp. 323–329 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mei Si
    • 1
  • Stacy Marsella
    • 1
  • David Pynadath
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Creative TechnologiesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaMarina del ReyUSA

Personalised recommendations