Advertisement

Patterns of Magnesium-Calcite Distribution in the Skeleton of Some Polar Bryozoan Species

Mineralogy of Polar Bryozoan Skeletons
  • Jennifer LoxtonEmail author
  • Piotr Kuklinski
  • James M. Mair
  • Mary Spencer Jones
  • Joanne S. Porter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences book series (LNESS, volume 143)

Abstract

Polar marine environments are already starting to exhibit the effects of climate change. The Arctic is the most rapidly warming place on Earth, and changes of the seawater chemistry of polar oceans have been recorded. Calcifying Bryozoa have diverse skeletal mineralogies making them an ideal model for investigating differences caused by environmental change. The aim of this study is to quantify the skeletal mineralogical diversity of polar bryozoans using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Six species of erect Bryozoa were analysed, three Arctic and three Antarctic species. Within each of the three species from each region, one has a cemented attachment point, one has flexible growth and the third is attached by chitinous rootlets. The analysis shows no significant difference in Mg-calcite distribution along the length of the six species but does show species-specific variation in both the consistency of Mg-calcite distribution along the length of a colony and the relationship between concentration of Mg-calcite in the root and growing tip. Analysis shows a statistically significant trend of increasing Mg-calcite concentration with increasing temperature. This adds further data to a growing body of published evidence for this mineralogy trend. The results of this study suggest that if bryozoan species are to be used as indicators of environmental change then it will be critical to have robust, replicated data of species-specific profiles for Mg-calcite distribution. This data, viewed alongside published mineralogy trends, may allow the use of skeletal mineralogy as a register of environmental effects and may enable monitoring of future impacts of climate change in marine benthic ecosystems.

Keywords

Polar Mineralogy Magnesium Skeleton Bryozoan 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Jens Najorka and Gordon Cressey (Natural History Museum, London) for their assistance with XRD and mineralogical analysis. The authors would also like to thank David Barnes (British Antarctic Survey) and Peter Hayward (Swansea University) for their expertise on Antarctic species and regions. We would like also to acknowledge the voyage leader, Martin Riddle, the crew and the captain of the RV Aurora Australis. The CAML-CEAMARC cruise of RV Aurora Australis (IPY project n° 53) were supported by the Australian Antarctic Division, the Japanese Science Foundation, the French polar institute IPEV and the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. This study has been completed thanks to grants from the Heriot-Watt Alumni Fund, the John Ray Trust and grant provided to PK by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (N N304 404038).

References

  1. Bader B, Schäfer P (2005) Impact of environmental seasonality on stable isotope composition of skeletons of the temperate bryozoan Cellaria sinuosa. Palaeogeogr Palaeclimatol Palaeoecol 226:58–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes DKA, Webb KE, Linse K (2007) Growth rate and its variability in erect Antarctic bryozoans. Polar Biol 30:1069–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berge J, Johnsen G, Nilsen F, Gulliksen B, Slagstad D (2005) Ocean temperature oscillations enable reappearance of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in Svalbard after a 1000 year absence. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 303:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bindoff NL, Willebrand J, Artale VA, Cazenave A, Gregory J, Gulev S, Hanawa K, Le Quéré C, Levitus S, Nojiri Y, Shum CK, Talley LD, Unnikrishnan A (2007) Observations: oceanic climate change and sea level. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Avery KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, pp 385–432Google Scholar
  5. Blanton TN, Huang TC, Toraya H, Hubbard CR, Robie SB, Louër D, Göbel HE, Will G, Gilles R, Raftery T (1995) JCPDS – International Centre for Diffraction Data round robin study of silver behenate. A possible low-angle X-ray diffraction calibration standard. Powder Diffr 10(2):91–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanton TN, Barnes CL, Lelental M (2000) Preparation of silver behenate coatings to provide low- to mid-angle diffraction calibration. J Appl Crystallogr 33:172–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borisenko YA, Gontar VT (1991) Skeletal composition of cold-water bryozoans. Biol Morya 1:80–90Google Scholar
  8. Comiso J (2010) Fundamental characteristics of the Polar Oceans and their sea ice cover. In: Polar Oceans from space, atmospheric and oceanographic sciences library 41, doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-68300-3_2
  9. Cottier F, Tverberg V, Inall M, Svendsen H, Nilsen F, Griffiths C (2005) Water mass modification in an Arctic fjord through cross-shelf exchange: the seasonal hydrography of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. J Geophys Res 110:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. David C, Keckhut P, Armetta A, Jumelet J, Snels M, Marchand M, Bekki S (2010) Radiosonde stratospheric temperatures at Dumont d’Urville (Antarctica): trends and link with polar stratospheric clouds. Atmos Chem Phys 10:3813–3825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis KJ, Dove PM, Yoreo D (2000) The role of Mg2+ as an impurity in calcite growth. Science 290:1134–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dinnebier RE (1987) Nonius gufi software. http://www2.fkf.mpg.de/xray/html/gufi_software.html
  13. Feely RA, Sabine CL, Lee K, Berelson W, Kleypas J, Fabry VJ, Millero FJ (2004) Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305:362–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haarpaintner J, Gascard J-C, Haugan PM (2001) Ice production and brine formation in Storfjorden, Svalbard. J Geophys Res 106:14001–14013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hayward PJ (1995) Antarctic cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Oxford Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoegh-Guldberg O, Bruno JF (2010) The impact of climate change on the world’s marine ecosystems. Science 328:1523–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jacobson MZ (2005) Studying ocean acidification with conservative, stable numerical schemes for nonequilibrium air-ocean exchange and ocean equilibrium chemistry. J Res Atmos 110:17Google Scholar
  18. Kaiser MJ, Attrill MJ, Jennings S (2005) Polar regions. In: Kaiser MJ, Attrill MJ, Jennings S, Thomas DN, Barnes DKA, Brierley AS, Polunin NVC, Raffaelli DG, Williams PJ le B (eds) Marine ecology: processes, systems and impacts. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  19. Kluge GA (1975) Bryozoa of the Northern Seas of the USSR. Amerind, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  20. Koubbi P, Ozouf-Costaz C, Goarant A, Moteki M, Hulley P-A, Causse R, Dettai A, Duhamel G, Pruvost P, Tavernier E, Post AL, Beaman RJ, Rintoul SR, Hirawake T, Hirano D, Ishimaru T, Riddle M, Hosie G (2010) Estimating the biodiversity of the East Antarctic shelf and oceanic zone for ecoregionalisation: example of the ichthyofauna of the CEAMARC (Collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census) CAML surveys. Polar Science 4(2): 115–133Google Scholar
  21. Kuklinski P, Bader B (2007) Comparison of bryozoan assemblages from two contrasting Arctic shelf regions. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 73:835–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuklinski P, Taylor PD (2008) Are bryozoans adapted for living in the Arctic? In: Hageman SJ, Key MM Jr, Winston JE (eds) Bryozoan studies 2007. Proceedings of the 14th International Bryozoology Association conference, Boone, North Carolina, 1–8 July 2007. Virginia Mus of Nat Hist Publ 15:101–110Google Scholar
  23. Kuklinski P, Taylor PD (2009) Mineralogy of Arctic bryozoan skeletons in a global context. Facies 55:489–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lombardi C, Cocito S, Hiscock K, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Setti M, Taylor PD (2008) Influence of seawater temperature on growth bands, mineralogy and carbonate production in a bioconstructional bryozoan. Facies 54:333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lowenstam HA (1954) Environmental relations of modification compositions of certain carbonate secreting marine invertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 40:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morse JW (2002) The dissolution kinetics of major sedimentary carbonate minerals. Earth-Sci Rev 58:51–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Orr JC, Fabry VJ, Aumont O (2005) Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437:681–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Poluzzi A, Sartori R (1975) Report on the carbonate mineralogy of Bryozoa. Doc Lab Geol Fac Sci Lyon 3:193–210Google Scholar
  29. Ries JB (2005) Aragonite production in calcite seas: effect of seawater Mg/Ca ratio on the calcification and growth of the calcareous alga Penicillus capitatus. Paleobiology 31:445–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ries JB, Cohen AL, McCorkle DC (2010) A nonlinear calcification response to CO2-induced ocean acidification by the coral Oculina arbuscula. Coral Reefs. doi: 10.1007/S00338-010-0632-3
  31. Saundray Y, Bouffandreau M (1958) Sur la composition chimique du systeme tégumentaire du quelques Bryozaires. Bull Inst Océogr Monaco 1119:1–13Google Scholar
  32. Schäfer P, Bader B (2008) Geochemical composition and variability in the skeleton of the bryozoan Cellaria sinuosa (Hassall): biological versus environmental control. In: Hageman SJ, Key MM Jr, Winston JE (eds) Bryozoan studies 2007. Proceedings of the 14th International Bryozoology Association conference, Boone, North Carolina, 1–8 July 2007. Virginia Mus of Nat Hist Publ 15:269–279Google Scholar
  33. Skogseth R, Haugan PM, Jakobsson M (2005) Watermass transformations in Storfjorden. Cont Shelf Res 25:667–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smith AM (2009) Bryozoans as southern sentinels of ocean acidification. Mar Freshw Res 60:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith AM, Girvan E (2010) Understanding a bimineralic bryozoan: skeletal structure and carbonate mineralogy of Odontionella cyclops (Foveolariidae: Cheilostomata: Bryozoa) in New Zealand. Palaeogeogr Palaeclimatol Palaeoecol 289:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Smith AM, Nelson CS, Spencer HG (1998) Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of New Zealand bryozoans. Mar Geol 151:26–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith AM, Key M, Gordon DP (2006) Skeletal mineralogy of bryozoans: taxonomic and temporal patterns. Earth-Sci Rev 78:287–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. SPSS Inc (1995) SigmaStat for windowsGoogle Scholar
  39. Taylor PD, James NP, Bone Y, Kuklinski P, Kyser TK (2009) Evolving mineralogy of cheilostome bryozoans. Palaios 24:440–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Turley C, Roberts JM, Guinotte JM (2007) Corals in deep-water: will the unseen hand of ocean acidification destroy cold-water ecosystems? Coral Reefs 26:445–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wood HL, Spicer JI, Widdicombe S (2008) Ocean acidification may increase calcification rates, but at a cost. Proc R Soc B 275:1767–1773CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Loxton
    • 1
    Email author
  • Piotr Kuklinski
    • 2
  • James M. Mair
    • 1
  • Mary Spencer Jones
    • 3
  • Joanne S. Porter
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Marine Biodiversity and Biotechnology, School of Life SciencesHeriot-Watt UniversityEdinburghUK
  2. 2.Institute of OceanologyPolish Academy of SciencesSopotPoland
  3. 3.Zoology DepartmentNatural History MuseumLondonUK

Personalised recommendations