Skip to main content

Automatically Discovering Properties That Specify the Latent Behavior of UML Models

  • Conference paper

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNPSE,volume 6394)

Abstract

Formal analysis can be used to verify that a model of the system adheres to its requirements. As such, traditional formal analysis focuses on whether known (desired) system properties are satisfied. In contrast, this paper proposes an automated approach to generating temporal logic properties that specify the latent behavior of existing UML models; these are unknown properties exhibited by the system that may or may not be desirable. A key component of our approach is Marple, a evolutionary-computation tool that leverages natural selection to discover a set of properties that cover different regions of the model state space. The Marple-discovered properties can be used to refine the models to either remove unwanted behavior or to explicitly document a desirable property as required system behavior. We use Marple to discover unwanted latent behavior in two applications: an autonomous robot navigation system and an automotive door locking control system obtained from one of our industrial collaborators.

Keywords

  • Unifed Modeling Language
  • Execution Trace
  • Latent Behavior
  • Unifed Modeling Language Model
  • Existence Property

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This work has been supported in part by NSF grants EIA-0000433, CNS-0551622, CCF-0541131, IIP-0700329, CCF-0750787, Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research under Grant No. N00014-01-1-0744, Siemens Corporate Research, and a Quality Fund Program grant from Michigan State University.

We gratefully acknowledge the feedback and insight provided by the reviewers of our earlier work.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-16145-2_22
  • Chapter length: 15 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-16145-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. McUmber, W.E., Cheng, B.H.C.: A general framework for formalizing UML with formal languages. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2001), Toronto, Canada (May 2001)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Lilius, J., Paltor, I.P.: vUML: A tool for verifying UML models. In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, Washington, DC, USA, p. 255. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (1999)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Tanuan, M.C.: Automated Analysis of Unifed Modeling Language (UML) Specifications. Master’s thesis, University of Waterloo, Canada (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Uchitel, S., Kramer, J., Magee, J.: Detecting implied scenarios in message sequence chart specifications. SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes 26(5), 74–82 (2001)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Lutz, R.R., Mikulski, I.C.: Requirements discovery during the testing of safety-critical software. In: ICSE 2003: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Software Engineering (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Letier, E.: Reasoning about Agents in Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering. PhD thesis, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Acharya, M., Xie, T., Pei, J., Xu, J.: Mining API patterns as partial orders from source code: from usage scenarios to specifications. In: ESEC-FSE 2007, pp. 25–34. ACM, New York (2007)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Chan, W.: Temporal-logic queries. In: Emerson, E.A., Sistla, A.P. (eds.) CAV 2000. LNCS, vol. 1855, pp. 450–463. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Chang, R.M., Avrunin, G.S., Clarke, L.A.: Property inference from program executions. Technical Report UM-CS-2006-26, University of Massachusetts (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Ernst, M.D., Cockrell, J., Griswold, W.G., Notkin, D.: Dynamically discovering likely program invariants to support program evolution. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 27(2), 99–123 (2001)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Flanagan, C., Leino, K.R.M.: Houdini, an annotation assistant for ESC/Java. In: Oliveira, J.N., Zave, P. (eds.) FME 2001. LNCS, vol. 2021, pp. 500–517. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Gurfinkel, A., Chechik, M., Devereux, B.: Temporal logic query checking: A tool for model exploration. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 29(10), 898–914 (2003)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  13. Jeffords, R., Heitmeyer, C.: Automatic generation of state invariants from requirements specifications. SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes 23(6), 56–69 (1998)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Weimer, W., Necula, G.C.: Mining temporal specifications for error detection. In: Halbwachs, N., Zuck, L.D. (eds.) TACAS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3440, pp. 461–476. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Yang, J., Evans, D., Bhardwaj, D., Bhat, T., Das, M.: Perracotta: mining temporal API rules from imperfect traces. In: ICSE 2006: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 282–291. ACM, New York (2006)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Koza, J.R., Keane, M.A., Streeter, M.J., Mydlowec, M., Yu, J., Lanza, G.: Genetic Programming IV: Routine Human-Competitive Machine Intelligence. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  17. Lehman, J., Stanley, K.: Exploiting open-endedness to solve problems through the search for novelty. In: Bullock, S., Noble, J., Watson, R., Bedau, M.A. (eds.) Artificial Life XI: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, pp. 329–336. MIT Press, Cambridge (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Dwyer, M.B., Avrunin, G.S., Corbett, J.C.: Patterns in property specifications for finite-state verification. In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 411–420 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Holzmann, G.: The Spin Model Checker, Primer and Reference Manual. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Konrad, S., Cheng, B.H.C.: Real-time specification patterns. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2005), St. Louis, MO, USA (May 2005)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Kim, M., Kim, S., Park, S., Choi, M.T., Kim, M., Gomaa, H.: UML-based service robot software development: a case study. In: ICSE 2006: Proceeding of the 28th International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 534–543 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Goldsby, H.J., Cheng, B.H.C., McKinley, P.K., Knoester, D.B., Ofria, C.A.: Digital evolution of behavioral models for autonomic systems. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Autonomic Computing (ICAC 2008), Chicago, Illinois (June 2008)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Smith, R.L., Avrunin, G.S., Clarke, L.A., Osterweil, L.J.: Propel: an approach supporting property elucidation. In: ICSE 2002: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 11–21. ACM, New York (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Cohen, M.B., Dwyer, M.B., Shi, J.: Coverage and adequacy in software product line testing. In: ROSATEA 2006: Proceedings of the ISSTA 2006 Workshop on Role of Software Architecture for Testing and Analysis, pp. 53–63. ACM, New York (2006)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this paper

Cite this paper

Goldsby, H.J., Cheng, B.H.C. (2010). Automatically Discovering Properties That Specify the Latent Behavior of UML Models . In: Petriu, D.C., Rouquette, N., Haugen, Ø. (eds) Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems. MODELS 2010. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 6394. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16145-2_22

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16145-2_22

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-16144-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-16145-2

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)