The Reactive-Causal Cognitive Agent Architecture

  • Ali Orhan Aydın
  • Mehmet Ali Orgun
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 323)


This study presents a general agent architecture to simulate human-like intelligence. The design philosophy behind the architecture is driven by a combination of Maslow’s theories of needs and Dennett’s intentional notion. Furthermore, to explain motives of intelligent agents, we adopt Alderfer’s theory of needs which revises the ideas of Maslow. Intelligent agents are considered as entities driven by unsatisfied needs, and in order to satisfy those needs they act intentionally. Based on these ideas, we present a three-tiered cognitive agent architecture to mimic many aspects of human intelligence. The reactive layer enables an agent to continuously observe internal and external conditions and act accordingly. The deliberative layer provides the means for learning, planning, confict resolution with other agents, and dispatching tasks to the components in the reactive layer. The causal layer oversees the high-level decision-making and emotion generation processes.


Intelligent Agent Architectures Intentional Notion Theories of Needs 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alderfer, C.P.: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth: Human Needs in Organizational Settings. Free Press, New York (1972)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aydın, A.O., Orgun, M.A., Nayak, A.C.: The reactive-causal architecture: Combining intentional notion and theories of needs. In: Wang, Y., Zhang, D., Latombe, J.-C., Kinsner, W. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics, ICCI 2008, Stanford University, California, USA, pp. 50–59. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aydın, A.O., Orgun, M.A., Nayak, A.C.: The Reactive-Causal Architecture: Towards Development of Believable Agents. In: Prendinger, H., Lester, J.C., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) IVA 2008. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5208, pp. 468–469. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bandura, A.: Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1985)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beaudoin, L.P., Sloman, A.: A Study of Motive Processing and Attention. In: Sloman, A., Hogg, D., Humphreys, G., Partridge, D., Ramsay, A. (eds.) Prospects for Artificial Intelligence, pp. 229–238. IOS Press, Amsterdam (1993)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beaudoin, L.P.: Goal Processing in Autonomous Agents. PhD Thesis, School of Computer Science; University of Birmingham, Birmingham (1994)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Box, G.E.P., Muller, M.E.: A Note on the Generation of Random Normal Deviates. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics 29(2), 610–611 (1958)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brewin, C.R.: Cognitive Change Processes in Psychotherapy. Psychological Review 96(3), 379–394 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Britannica Concise Encyclopaedia: Motivation (2005), (last accessed March 11, 2009)
  10. 10.
    Clore, G.L., Palmer, J.: Affective Guidance of Intelligent Agents: How Emotion Controls Cognition. Cognitive Systems Research 10(1), 21–30 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cowan, J.W.: The Complete Lojban Language. Logical Language Group Inc. (1997)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dennett, D.C.: The Intentional Stance. MIT Press, Cambridge (1987)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dennett, D.C.: Three Kinds of Intentional Psychology. In: Perspectives in the Philosophy of Language: A Concise Anthology, pp. 163–186. Broadview Press (2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Georgeff, M.P., Lansky, A.L.: Procedural knowledge. Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue on Knowledge Representation 74, 1383–1398 (1986)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hareli, S., Parkinson, B.: What’s Social about Social Emotions? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38(2), 131–156 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hayes-Roth, B.: A Blackboard Architecture for Control. Artificial Intelligence 26(3), 251–321 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaelbling, L.P.: An Architecture for Intelligent Reactive Systems. In: Proc. 1986 Workshop on Reasoning about Actions and Plans, pp. 395–410. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo (1986)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    LaValle, S.M.: Planning Algorithms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2006)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lazaruz, R.S.: Thoughts on the Relations between Emotions and Cognition. American Physiologist 37(10), 1019–1024 (1982)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Luck, M., D’Inverno, M.: A Formal Framework for Agency and Autonomy. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems, pp. 254–260. AAAI Press / MIT Press (1995)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maes, P.: The Agent Network Architecture: ANA. SIGART Bulletin 2(4), 115–120 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maslow, A.H.: A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review 50(4), 370–396 (1943)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maslow, A.H.: Motivation and Personality. Harper and Row (1987)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Norman, T.J.F.: Motivation-Based Direction of Planning Attention in Agents with Goal Autonomy. PhD Thesis. University College London, London (1996)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ortony, A., Turner, T.J.: What is Basic about Basic Emotions? Psychological Review 97(3), 315–331 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ortony, A.: Affect and Emotions in Intelligent Agents: Why and How. In: Tao, J., Tan, T. (eds.) Affective Information Processing, pp. 11–21. Springer, London (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pearl, J.: Causality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rao, A.S., Georgeff, M.P.: BDI Agents: From Theory to Practice. In: Lesser, V. (ed.) Proceedings of the First Intl. Conference on Multiagent Systems, pp. 312–319. AAAI Press, Menlo Park (1995)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reiter, R.: Knowledge in Action: Logical Foundations for Specifying and Implementing Dynamical Systems, p. 448. MIT Press, Cambridge (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Singh, M.P.: Multiagent systems: A theoretical framework for intentions, know-how, and communications. LNCS, vol. 799. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sloman, A.: What sort of Architecture is Required for a Human-Like Agent. In: Foundations of Rational Agency, pp. 35–52. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht (1999)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sloman, A.: Varieties of Affect and the CogAff Architecture Schema. In: Johnson, C. (ed.) Proceedings Symposium on Emotion, Cognition, and Affective Computing AISB 2001 Convention, York, pp. 39–48 (March 2001)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sloman, A.: Beyond Shallow Models of Emotion. Cognitive Processing 2(1), 177–198 (2001)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sloman, A.: The Nursemaid (Minder) Scenario. Draft (May 8, 2004), (last accessed March 11, 2009)
  35. 35.
    Stich, S.P.: Could Man be an Irrational Animal. Synthese 64(1), 115–135 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sun, R., Merrill, E., Peterson, T.: From Implicit Skills to Explicit Knowledge: A Bottom-up Model of Skill Learning. Cognitive Science 25, 203–244 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sun, R.: A Tutorial on CLARION 5.0. Cognitive Science Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 5th edn. (July 22, 2003), (last accessed March 11, 2009)
  38. 38.
    Sutton, R.S., Barto, A.G.: Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. MIT Press, Cambridge (1998)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tiedens, L.Z., Leach, C.W.: The Social Life of Emotions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wukmir, V.J.: Emoción y sufrimiento: Endoantropología elemental. Labor, Barcelona (1967)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Patel, S., Patel, D.: A Layered Reference Model of the Brain (LRMB). IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part C: Applications and Reviews 36(2), 124–133 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang, Y.: On the Cognitive Processes of Human Perception with Emotions, Motivations, and Attitudes. International Journal of Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence 1(4), 1–13 (2007)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wang, Y.: A Cognitive Informatics Reference Model of Autonomous Agent Systems (AAS). International Journal of Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence 3(1), 1–16 (2009)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wooldridge, M., Jennings, N.R.: Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages: A Survey. In: Wooldridge, M., Jennings, N.R. (eds.) ECAI 1994 and ATAL 1994. LNCS, vol. 890, pp. 1–22. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Orhan Aydın
    • 1
  • Mehmet Ali Orgun
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ComputingMacquarie UniversityAustralia

Personalised recommendations