Design for Wire and Arc Additive Layer Manufacture

Conference paper

Abstract

Additive Layer Manufacture (ALM) is a technique whereby freeform structures are produced by building up material in layers. RUAM (Ready-to-Use Additive Layer Manufacturing) is an innovative concept for building large scale metal ready-to-use parts. The design for RUAM has several process steps: the geometric design of the parts taking the complex process behaviour of the arc welding process into account; FEM to predict temperature and stress distributions to minimise part distortions; and efficient robot tool path design. This paper covers these essential design steps from a technical as well as practical point of view.

Keywords

KeywordsManufacturing Rapid product development Design for manufacture 

References

  1. 1.
    Wood, D. (2009) Additive layer manufacturing at airbus – reality check or view into the future? TCT Magazine, 17(3):23–27.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lockett, H., Kazanas, P. (2009) Design for additive layer manufacture. The Laser User, 57:22–23.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernard, A., Fischer, A. (2002) New trends in rapid product development. CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, 51(2):635–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bernard, A., Karunakaran, K.P. (2007) Rapid manufacturing of metallic objects: A challenge for research and industry. In: Bartolo et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd Virtual and Rapid Manufacturing Conference VRAP, Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-41602-3, pp. 7–14.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mehnen, J., Trautmann, H. (2008) Robust multi-objective optimisation of weld bead geometry for additive manufacturing. Proceedings of the 6th CIRP International Seminar on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering (CIRP ICME '08), Naples, Italy, pp. 419–424.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Casalino, G., Ludovico, A.D. (2008) Finite element simulation of high speed pulse welding of high specific strength metal alloys. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 197(1–3):301–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Murugan, S., Rai, S.K., Kumar, P.V., Jayakumar, T., Raj, B., Bose, M.S.C. (2001) Temperature distribution and residual stresses due to multipass welding in type 304 stainless steel and low carbon steel weld pads. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 78(4):307–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deng, D., Murakawa, H. (2006) Numerical simulation of temperature field and residual stress in multi-pass welds in stainless steel pipe and comparison with experimental measurements. Computational Materials Science, 37(3):269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chin, R.K., Beuth, J.L., Amon, C.H. (2001) Successive deposition of metals in solid freeform fabrication processes, part 1: Thermomechanical models of layers and droplet columns. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 123(4):623–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chin, R.K., Beuth, J.L., Amon, C.H. (2001) Successive deposition of metals in solid freeform fabrication processes, part 2: Thermomechanical models of adjacent droplets. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 123(4):632–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goldak, J., Chakravarti, A., Bibby, M. (1984) New finite element model for welding heat sources. Metallurgical Transactions B, 15B:299–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ericsson, M., Nylen, P., Danielsson, F., Johansson, H. (2005) Off-line programming or robots for metal deposition. 7th International Conference on Trends in Welding Research, Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, May 16–20, pp.149–160.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rebeiro, F., Norrish, J. (1997) Making components with controlled metal deposition. The 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE, Guimaraes, Portugal, pp. 831–835, vol. 3.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang, Y.M., Li, P., Chen, Y., Male, A.T. (2002) Automated system for welding-based rapid prototyping. Mechatronics, 12(1):37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leon, J.C., Noel, F., Fischer, A., Azernikov, S., Ollier, F. (2002) Multiresolution hybrid mesh for rapid prototyping. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 19(1):1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Manufacturing DepartmentCranfield UniversityCranfieldUK
  2. 2.Department of Aerospace EngineeringCranfield UniversityCranfieldUK

Personalised recommendations