DelsArtMap: Applying Delsarte’s Aesthetic System to Virtual Agents

  • Michael Nixon
  • Philippe Pasquier
  • Magy Seif El-Nasr
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6356)


Procedural animation presents significant advantages for generating content, especially character animation, in virtual worlds. Artistic, aesthetic models have much to offer procedural character animation to help address the loss of expressivity that sometimes results. In particular, we examine the contribution of François Delsarte’s system and formalize it into a mapping between emotional states and static character poses. We then show an implementation of this model in UNITY.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    UNITY: game development tool (2010),
  2. 2.
    Badler, N.I.: Real-time virtual humans. In: Pacific Conference on Computer Graphics and Applications, pp. 4–13. IEEE Computer Society Press, Seoul (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Badler, N.I., Allbeck, J., Zhao, L., Byun, M.: Representing and parameterizing agent behaviors. In: Proceedings of Computer Animation, 2002, pp. 133–143. IEEE Computer Society, Geneva (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bates, J.: The role of emotion in believable agents. Communications of the ACM, Special Issue on Agents 37(7), 122–125 (1994)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bates, J., Loyall, A.B., Reilly, W.S.: An architecture for action, emotion, and social behavior. In: Castelfranchi, C., Werner, E. (eds.) MAAMAW 1992. LNCS, vol. 830, pp. 55–68. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: Categories, origins, usage and coding. Semiotica 1, 49–98 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ekman, P.: Facial expression and emotion. American Psychologist 48, 384–392 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Isbister, K.: Better Game Characters by Design: A Psychological Approach. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Laban, R.: The mastery of movement. Plays Inc., Boston (1971)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marsella, S., Carnicke, S.M., Gratch, J., Okhmatovskaia, A., Rizzo, A.: An exploration of delsarte’s structural acting system. In: Gratch, J., Young, M., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D., Olivier, P. (eds.) IVA 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4133, pp. 80–92. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Murray, J.H.: Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. The MIT Press, Boston (1998)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nixon, M.: Enhancing Believability: Evaluating the Application of Delsarte’s Aesthetic System to the Design of Virtual Humans. Master’s, Simon Fraser University (October 2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nixon, M., Pasquier, P., Seif El-Nasr, M.: Delsarte pose system (2010),
  14. 14.
    Preece, J., Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., Benyon, D., Holland, S., Carey, T.: Human- Computer Interaction: Concepts And Design. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1994)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shawn, T.: Every Little Movement. Dance Horizons, Brooklyn (1954)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stebbins, G.: Delsarte System of Expression. Dance Horizons, Brooklyn (1977)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wallbott, H.: Bodily expression of emotion. European Journal of Social Psychology 28, 879–897 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wooldridge, M.: An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zammitto, V., DiPaola, S., Arya, A.: A methodology for incorporating personality modeling in believable game characters. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Games Research and Development (CyberGames), Beijing, China (October 2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Nixon
    • 1
  • Philippe Pasquier
    • 1
  • Magy Seif El-Nasr
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Interactive Arts and TechnologySimon Fraser UniversityCanada

Personalised recommendations