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With the advancement of science and technology, and in particular the development of micro and nano technologies, the ability to restructure and alter the properties of materials has been realized by enabling the control of molecules and atoms. Micro and nano technologies are set to improve many aspects of our lives, such as information, medicine, materials, and so on. The evolution of micro and nano technologies has drawn much attention due to potential applications in the fields of manufacturing and processing, e.g., the electronic microcircuit industry. Wide-ranging research has also been carried out in this area, which is now considered to be one of the most promising areas for technical advances in the future.
Since Feynman presented the famous talk “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” in 1959, technologies that we can use to control atoms and molecules and to rearrange matter to suit our needs have experienced significant developments. Nanotechnology has ambitiously...
KeywordsJoule Heating Composite Thin Film Whisker Formation Stress Migration Biaxial Compressive Stress
The author wishes to express his thanks to Y. Lu and S. Ishikawa for their kind help in preparing the manuscript.
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