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Developing Observational Categories for Group Process Research Based on Task and Coordination Requirement Analysis: Examples from Research on Medical Emergency-Driven Teams

Abstract

In this chapter, we argue that the task is an important influence for teams and that task aspects should be more explicitly, and more specifically, included in the study of team processes and team performance. Using a cardiopulmonary resuscitation task as an example, we show how an adaptation of hierarchical task analysis that assesses task requirements (taskwork) and coordination requirements (teamwork) can be useful in identifying a task’s goals and sub-goals, defining qualifiers of good goal attainment, identifying coordination requirements, and developing hypotheses about which teamwork and coordination behaviour should specifically be related to the performance of different aspects of complex tasks. Our argument is based on concepts that extend the general input–process–output model of groups.

Keywords

  • Cardiac Arrest
  • Task Analysis
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
  • Cardiac Massage
  • Coordination Behaviour

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Fig. 6.1

Notes

  1. 1.

    The task-focused approach to group process analysis presented here is obviously not restricted to the cardiopulmonary resuscitation task. We will nevertheless use this task to illustrate how process performance markers can be developed and how the analysis of task requirements can be helpful in relating specific behaviour to performance. Examples referring to other tasks will also be mentioned.

  2. 2.

    In our simulator setting, (1) the patient was branched on a heart surveillance monitor, which facilitates diagnosis; (2) an intravenous line was already established; (3) the patient showed ventricular fibrillation; and (4) differential diagnostics was not required, because the simulator mannequin was programmed to wake up after proper resuscitation.

  3. 3.

    Placement of a tube to allow artificial ventilation of a patient.

  4. 4.

    For advanced life support, intubation (introducing a tube into the trachea of the patient to facilitate ventilation) is suggested as a more efficient way to ventilate the patient. If this is done, cardiac massage and ventilation no longer need to be alternated.

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Tschan, F., Semmer, N.K., Vetterli, M., Gurtner, A., Hunziker, S., Marsch, S.U. (2011). Developing Observational Categories for Group Process Research Based on Task and Coordination Requirement Analysis: Examples from Research on Medical Emergency-Driven Teams. In: Boos, M., Kolbe, M., Kappeler, P., Ellwart, T. (eds) Coordination in Human and Primate Groups. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15355-6_6

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