Comparing the Effectiveness of GPS-Enhanced Voice Guidance for Pedestrians with Metric- and Landmark-Based Instruction Sets

  • Karl Rehrl
  • Elisabeth Häusler
  • Sven Leitinger
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6292)

Abstract

This paper reports on a field experiment comparing two different kinds of verbal turn instructions in the context of GPS-based pedestrian navigation. The experiment was conducted in the city of Salzburg with 20 participants. Both instruction sets were based on qualitative turn direction concepts. The first one was enhanced with metric distance information and the second one was enhanced with landmark-anchored directions gathered from participants of a previous field experiment. The results show that in context of GPS-enhanced pedestrian navigation both kinds of instruction sets lead to similar navigation performance. Results also demonstrate that effective voice-only guidance of pedestrians in unfamiliar environments at a minimal error rate and without stopping the walk is feasible. Although both kinds of instructions lead to similar navigation performance, participants clearly preferred landmark-enhanced instructions.

Keywords

Pedestrian navigation location-based services cognitively ergonomic turn instructions navigation performance voice-only guidance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arikawa, M., Konomi, S., Ohnishi, K.: Navitime: Supporting pedestrian navigation in the real world. IEEE Pervasive Computing 6(3), 21–29 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baus, J., Cheverst, K., Kray, C.: A survey of map-based mobile guides. In: Meng, L., Zipf, A., Winter, S. (eds.) Map-based mobile services - Theories, Methods, and Implementations, pp. 193–209. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Knauff, M., Meilinger, T.: Ask for Directions or Use a Map: A Field Experiment on Spatial Orientation and Wayfinding in an urban Environment. Journal of Spatial Science 53(2), 13–23 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ishikawa, T., Fujiwara, H., Imai, O., Okabe, A.: Wayfinding with a GPS-based mobile navigation system: A comparison with maps and direct experience. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28, 74–82 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dillemuth, J.: Map Size Matters: Difficulties of Small-Display Map Use. In: Proc. of the 4th Int. Symposium on LBS Services & TeleCartography, Hongkong, pp. 181–191 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chittaro, L., Burigat, S.: Augmenting Audio Messages with Visual Directions in Mobile Guides: an Evaluation of Three Approaches. In: Proc. of the 7th Int. Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices & Services, Salzburg, pp. 107–114 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goodman, J., Brewster, S., Gray, P.: How can we best use landmarks to support older people in navigation? Behaviour & Information Technology 1, 3–20 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ishikawa, T., Yamazaki, T.: Showing Where To Go by Maps or Pictures: An Empirical Case Study at Subway Exits. In: Hornsby, K.S., Claramunt, C., Denis, M., Ligozat, G. (eds.) COSIT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5756, pp. 330–341. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coors, V., Elting, C., Kray, C., Laakso, K.: Presenting route instructions on mobile devices: From textual directions to 3D visualization. In: Dykes, J., MacEachren, A.M., Kraak, M.-J. (eds.) Exploring Geovisualization, pp. 529–550. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reitmayr, G., Schmalstieg, D.: Collaborative augmented reality for outdoor navigation and information browsing. In: Proc. of Symposium Location Based Services and TeleCartography, Geowiss. Mitteilungen, vol. 66, pp. 53–62. Eigenverlag, Austria (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heuten, W., Henze, N., Boll, S., Pielot, M.: Tactile Wayfinder: A Non-Visual Support System for Wayfinding. In: Proceedings of the 5th Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction: building bridges, pp. 172–181. ACM, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holland, S., Morse, D., Gedenryd, H.: AudioGPS: Spatial Audio Navigation with a Minimal Attention Interface. Personal and Ubiqu. Computing 6(4), 253–259 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ishikawa, T., Kiyomoto, M.: Turn to the Left or to the West: Verbal Navigational Directions in Relative and Absolute Frames of Reference. In: Cova, T.J., Miller, H.J., Beard, K., Frank, A.U., Goodchild, M.F. (eds.) GIScience 2008. LNCS, vol. 5266, pp. 119–132. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Streeter, L.A., Vitello, D., Wonsiewicz, S.A.: How to tell people where to go: Comparing navigational aids. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 22, 549–562 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Klippel, A., Richter, K.-F., Hansen, S.: Cognitively ergonomic route directions. In: Karimi, H.A. (ed.) Handbook of Research on Geoinformatics, pp. 230–238. Idea Group Inc., Pittsburgh (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Klippel, A., Tappe, T., Kulik, L., Lee, P.: Wayfinding choremes - A language for modeling conceptual route knowledge. J. of Visual Languages and Comp. 16(4), 311–329 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Denis, M.: The description of routes: A cognitive approach to the production of spatial discourse. Current Psychology of Cognition (16), 409–458 (1997)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Denis, M., Michon, P.-E., Tom, A.: Assisting Pedestrian Wayfinding in Urban Settings: Why References to Landmarks are Crucial in Direction Giving. In: Allen, G.L. (ed.) Applied spatial cognition: from research to cognitive technology, pp. 25–51. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lovelace, K.L., Hegarty, M., Montello, D.R.: Elements of Good Route Directions in Familiar and Unfamiliar Environments. In: Freksa, C., Mark, D. (eds.) Spatial information theory: Cognitive and computational foundations of geographic information science, pp. 65–82. Springer, Berlin (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Millonig, A., Schechtner, K.: Developing Landmark-Based Pedestrian Navigation Systems. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 8, 43–49 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lynch, K.: The Image of the City. MIT Press, Cambridge (1960)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sorrows, M.E., Hirtle, S.C.: The Nature of Landmarks for Real and Electronic Spaces. In: Freksa, C., Mark, D.M. (eds.) COSIT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1661, pp. 37–50. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Raubal, M., Winter, S.: Enriching Wayfinding Instructions with Local Landmarks. In: Egenhofer, M.J., Mark, D.M. (eds.) GIScience 2002. LNCS, vol. 2478, pp. 243–259. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ross, T., May, A., Thompson, S.: The use of landmarks in pedestrian navigation instructions and the effects of context. In: Proc. of the 6th Int. Symp. of Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, pp. 300–304. Springer, Berlin (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Knoblauch, R.L., Pietrucha, M.T., Nitzburg, M.: Field studies of pedestrian walking speed and start-up time. Transportation Research Board Records No. 1538 (1996)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rehrl, K., Leitinger, S., Gartner, G., Gartner, G., Ortag, F.: An analysis of direction and motion concepts in verbal descriptions of route choices. In: Hornsby, K.S., Claramunt, C., Denis, M., Ligozat, G. (eds.) COSIT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5756, pp. 471–488. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Klippel, A., Dewey, C., Knauff, M., Richter, K.-F., Montello, D., Freksa, C., et al.: Direction Concepts in Wayfinding Assistance Systems. In: Baus, J., Kray, C., Porzel, R. (eds.) Workshop on AI in Mobile Systems (AIMS 2004), Saarbrücken, pp. 1–8 (2004)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ishikawa, T., Yamazaki, T.: Showing Where To Go by Maps or Pictures: An Empirical Case Study at Subway Exits. In: Hornsby, K.S., Claramunt, C., Denis, M., Ligozat, G. (eds.) COSIT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5756, pp. 330–341. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rogers, Y., Connelly, K.H., Tedesco, L., Hazlewood, W., Kurtz, A., Hall, R.E., Hursey, J., Toscos, T.: Why It’s Worth the Hassle: The Value of In-Situ Studies When Designing Ubicomp. In: Krumm, J., Abowd, G.D., Seneviratne, A., Strang, T. (eds.) UbiComp 2007. LNCS, vol. 4717, pp. 336–353. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rosch, E., Loyd, B.B.: Cognition and Categorization. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale (1978)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Klippel, A., Montello, D.R.: Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Turn Direction Concepts. In: Winter, S., Duckham, M., Kulik, L., Kuipers, B. (eds.) COSIT 2007. LNCS, vol. 4736, pp. 354–372. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Quintarelli, E.: Folksonomies: power to the people. Paper presented at the ISKO Italy-UniMIB meeting (2005), http://www.iskoi.org/doc/folksonomies.htm
  33. 33.
    Holone, H., Misund, G., Holmstedt, H.: Users are Doing It for Themselves: Pedestrian Navigation With User Generated Content. In: Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies, pp. 91–99. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl Rehrl
    • 1
  • Elisabeth Häusler
    • 1
  • Sven Leitinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Salzburg ResearchSalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations