Advertisement

Treeing the CATS: Artificial Gulf Formation by the Chotts Algeria–Tunisia Scheme

  • Nicola M. PugnoEmail author
  • Richard B. Cathcart
  • Joseph J. Friedlander
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Introduction

The Chotts Algeria–Tunisia Scheme (CATS) is a grand design to form a man-excavated new Mediterranean Sea gulf to be shared by Tunisia and Algeria. It is well known that closed and nearly closed seawater volumes fluctuate in response to changes in local aerial regional evaporation and precipitation rates. The Zone of Chotts, bordering the Sahara at 32–35 North Latitude by 5–10 East Longitude, shared by Algeria and Tunisia, is an aggregation of playas that currently exist under a high-evaporation/low-rainfall regime (often >20:1); nowadays these particular playas are subjected to sporadic ephemeral floods. The mean annual rainfall is ~90–120 mm in southern Tunisia and Algeria, with high inter-annual variability. The rainy season extends from November to February, with summertime winds emanating from the northwest, and from the southwest during wintertime and Spring—that is, blowing from the aridified, desolate and mostly uninhabited Sahara landscape. The mean regional...

Keywords

Graphene Sheet Ballast Water North Atlantic Ocean Tunnel Boring Machine Suez Canal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abulnaga BE, El-Sammany MS (2004) De-Silting Lake Nasser with slurry pipelines. Critical transitions in water and environmental resource management proceedings of world water and environmental resources congress 2004, p 284Google Scholar
  2. Allan JA (1983) Natural resources as national fantasies. Geoforum 14:243–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen JRL, Pye K (eds) (2009) Saltmarshes: morphodynamics, conservation and engineering. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 196 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Anane M, Kallali H, Jellali S (2008) Ranking suitable sites for soil aquifer treatment in Jerba Island (Tunisia) using remote sensing, GIS and AHP-multicriteria decision analysis. Int J Water 4:121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anon. (2007) The Inland Sea. Wired. p. 124Google Scholar
  6. Anon. (2010) Big dipper. The National Geographic 217, npGoogle Scholar
  7. Anthoff D, Nicholls RJ, Tol RSJ (2010) The economic impact of substantial sea-level rise. Mitig Adapt Strategies Global Change 15:321–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Badescu V (ed) (2009) Mars: prospective energy and material resources. Springer, Heidelberg, 695 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. Beddoe R, Costanza R, Farley J, Garza E, Kent J, Kubiszewski I, Martinez L, McCowen T, Murphy K, Myers N, Ogden Z, Stapleton K, Woodward J (2009) Overcoming systemic roadblocks to sustainability: the evolutionary redesign of worldviews, institutions, and technologies. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:2483–2489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilham R (2009) The seismic future of cities. Bull Earthq Eng 7:839–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blondel J (2006) The ‘design’ of Mediterranean landscapes: a millennial story of humans and ecological systems during the historic period. Human Ecol 34:713–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bohannon J (2010) The Nile Delta’s sinking future. Science 327:1444–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borowiec A (2003) Taming the Sahara: Tunisia shows a way while others falter. Praeger, NY, pp 168Google Scholar
  14. Bouchette F, Schuster M, Ghienne JF, Denamiel C, Roquin C, Moussa A, Marsaleix P, Duringer P (2010) Hydrodynamics of Holocene Lake Mega-Chad. Quat Res 73:226–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boyd TA (1929) Synthetic seas. Sci Mon 29:61–65Google Scholar
  16. Brandt DA (2000) A review of reservoir desiltation. Int J Sediment Res 15:321–342Google Scholar
  17. Caldwell C (2009) Reflections on the revolution in Europe: immigration, Islam, and the West. Doubleday, NY, 432 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Cathcart RB (2008) Kra Canal (Thailand) excavation by nuclear-powered dredges. Int J Global Environ Issues 8:248–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cathcart RB, Badescu V (2004) Architectural ecology: a tentative Sahara restoration. Int J Environ Stud 61:145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cathcart RB, Bolonkin AA (2007) Ocean terracing. arXiv.org > physics > physics/0770110Google Scholar
  21. Christo Jeanne-Claude (2008) Over the River. Taschen, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  22. Collins RO (1990) The waters of the Nile. Markus Wiener Publishers, New York, p 348Google Scholar
  23. Corbin JS (2007) Marine aquaculture: today’s necessity for tomorrow’s seafood. Mar Technol Soc J 41:16–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cullen MN (2005) Tension membrane water retaining structures. Trans Build Environ 79:427–436Google Scholar
  25. Dachs J, Mejanelle L (2010) Organic pollutants in coastal waters, sediments, and biota: a relevant driver for ecosystems during the anthropocene? Estuaries Coasts 33:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Danovaro R, Umani SF, Pusceddu A (2009) Climate change and the potential spreading of marine mucilage and microbial pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea. PLos One 4:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davis DK (2007) Resurrecting the granary of Rome. Ohio University Press, Athens, 296 ppGoogle Scholar
  28. Day JW, Gunn JD, Folan WJ (2007) Emergence of complex societies after sea level stabilized. EOS Trans Am Geophys Soc 88:169–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. della Dora V (2007) Geo-strategy and the persistence of antiquity: surveying mythical hydrographies in the eastern Mediterranean, 1784–1869. J Hist Geogr 33:514–541Google Scholar
  30. Dorale JA, Onac BP, Fornos J J, Gines J, Gines A, Tuccimei P, Peate DW (2010) Sea-level highstand 81,000 years ago in Mallorca. Science 327:860–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Edmunds WM (2003) Groundwater evolution in the continental intercalaire aquifer of southern Algeria and Tunisia: trace elements and isotopic indicators. Appl Geochem 18:805–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. El-Bassat RA (2008) Composition and abundance of the zooplankton community in the Bitter Lakes, Egypt, in relation to environmental factors. Afr J Aquat Sci 33:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Enger L (1991) Estimating the effects on regional precipitation climate in a semiarid region caused by an artificial lake using a mesoscale model. J Appl Meteorol 30:227–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Faye M (2004) The challenges facing landlocked developing countries. J Human Dev 5:31–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Feistel R (2008) Mutually consistent thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater: a new standard for oceanography. Ocean Sci 4:275–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fischer AG, Garrison RF (2009) The role of the Mediterranean region in the development of sedimentary geology: a historical review. Sedimentology 56:3–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garcia-Castellanos D, Lombardo U (2007) Poles of inaccessibility: a calculation algorithm for the remotest places on earth. Scott Geogr J 123:227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garel E, Fernandez LL, Collins M (2008) Sediment resuspension events induced by the wake wash of deep-draft vessels. Geo-Mar Lett 28:205–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gide C (1970) Design for Utopia: selected writings of Charles fourier. Shocken Books, New York, p 180Google Scholar
  40. Goudie AS (2003) Enhanced salinization. Dev Water Sci 50:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guillaumont B (1995) Pollution impact study in Gabes Gulf (Tunisia) using remote sensing data. Mar Technol Soc J 29:46–58Google Scholar
  42. Harff J, Hay WW, Tetzlaff DM (2007) Coastline changes: interaction of climate and geological processes. The Geological Society of America, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  43. Haycraft WR (2000) Yellow Steel: The Story of the earthmoving equipment industry. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 463 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Hendriks IE, Bouma TJ, Morris EP, Duarte CM (2010) Effects of seagrasses and algae of the Caulerpa family on hydrodynamics and particle-trapping rates. Mar Biol 157:473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hess WN (1962) New horizons in resource development: the role of nuclear explosives. Geogr Rev 52:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hiratsuka A (1993) Seawater pumped-storage power plant in Okinawa Island, Japan. Engineering 35:237–246Google Scholar
  47. Hommes S, Hulscher SJMH, Mulder JPM, Otter HS, Bressers HTA (2009) Role of perceptions and knowledge in the impact assessment for the extension of mainport Rotterdam. Mar Policy 33:146–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ibrayev RA, Ozsoy C, Sur HI (2010) Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air–sea interaction. Ocean Sci 6:311–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jackson JB (1984) Discovering the vernacular landscape. Yale University Press, p 8Google Scholar
  50. Jean-Pierre L, Philippe G, Mohamed A, Abdelmatif D, Larbi B (2010) Climate evolution and possible effects on surface water resources of North Algeria. Curr Sci 98:1056–1062Google Scholar
  51. Kahn MJ (2009) Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems and assessment of horizontal and vertical axis turbines for river and tidal applications: a technology status review. Appl Energy 86:1823–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kamel S (2008) The hydro geochemical characterization of ground waters in Tunisian Chott’s region. Environ Geol 54:843–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karaloui F, Touzi S, Tarhouni J, Bousselmi L (2009) Improvement potential of the integrated water resources management of the mining basin of Gafsa. Desalination 248:157–163Google Scholar
  54. Kaya H (1991) Ideal grand design for enclosed coastal seas. Mar Pollut Bull 23:463–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Koger G (1999) The Great Sahara Sea: an idea whose time has come? Mercator’s World 4:18–23Google Scholar
  56. Kouris Paul S (2000) USA patent 6,114,773. Hydraulic Turbine AssemblyGoogle Scholar
  57. Kuleli T (2010) City-based risk assessment of sea level rise using topographic and census data for the Turkish coastal zone. Estuaries Coasts 33:640–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lambeck K, Anzidei M, Antonioli F, Benini A, Esposito A (2004) Sea level in Roman time in the Central Mediterranean and implications for recent change. Earth Planet Sci Lett 224:563–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lejeusne C, Chevaldonne P, Pergent-Martini C, Boudouresque CF, Perez T (2010) Climate change effects on a miniature ocean: the highly diverse, highly impacted Mediterranean Sea. Trends Ecol Evol 25:251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leuliette EW, Miller L (2009) Closing the sea level rise budget with altimetry, Argo, and GRACE. Geophys Res Lett 36:Gl036010Google Scholar
  61. Litrico X, Fromion V (2009) Modeling and control of hydrosystems. Springer, NL, p 409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mukerjee M (2010) Poisoned shipments. Sci Am 302:14–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Newman WS, Fairbridge RW (1986) The management of sea-level rise. Nature 320:319–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Connell KA (2001) The forgotten sea. Landsc Architect (February), pp 50–54Google Scholar
  65. O’Doherty B (2010) Christo and Jeanne-Claude: remembering the running fence. University of California Press, Berkeley, p 178Google Scholar
  66. Orstein L, Aleinov I, Rind D (2009) Irrigated afforestation of the Sahara and Australian Outback to end global warming. Clim Change 97:409–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Paskoff RP (1991) Modifications of coastal conditions in the Gulf of Gabes (Southern Tunisia) since classical antiquity. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie SB 81:149–163Google Scholar
  68. Pearce F (2009) Sunshine superpower. New Sci 204:38–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perissoratis C, Georgas D (1994) The role of the earth scientist in assessing the impacts of climatic changes due to the greenhouse effect: two case studies of ‘prognostic geology’. Terra Nova 6:306–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pliego JM (2005) Open session—the Gibraltar strait tunnel an overview of the study process. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 20:558–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Poulos SE, Ghionis G, Maroukian H (2009) The consequences of a future eustatic sea-level rise on the deltaic coasts of Inner Thermaikos Gulf (Aegean Sea) and Kyparissiakos Gulf (Ionian Sea), Greece. Geomorphology 107:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pugno N (2006) Dynamic quantized fracture mechanics. Int J Fract 140:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Silva PG et al (2006) Neotectonic fault mapping at the Gibraltar Strait Tunnel area, Bolonkia Bay (South Spain). Eng Geol 84:31–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Strahan D (2009) Green grid. New Sci 201:42–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sturm T, Oh E (2010) Natural disasters as the end of the insurance industry? Scalar competitive strategies, alternative risk transfers, and the economic crisis. Geoforum 41:154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tagliapietra D et al (2009) A review of terms and definitions to categorize estuaries, lagoons and associated environments. Mar Freshw Res 60:497–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Toman J (1980) Technical report UCID-18531, 78 ppGoogle Scholar
  78. Touliabah HE, Taylor WD (2004) The phytoplankton of Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, including the impacts of nutrient-laden and heated effluents. Afr J Aquat Sci 29:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Trieb F, Muller-Steinhagen H (2008) Concentrating solar power for seawater desalination in the Middle East and North Africa. Desalination 220:165–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tsimplis MN (1995) A two-dimensional tidal model for the Mediterranean Sea. J Geophys Res 100:16223–16239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. US Army Corps of Engineers (2005) Beneficial uses of dredged material. University of the Pacific, San Diego, 200 ppGoogle Scholar
  82. Vaizey M (1990) CHRISTO. Rizzoli, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. Valdemoro H, Jimenez J (2006) The influence of shoreline dynamics on the use and exploitation of Mediterranean tourist beaches. Coast Manage 34:405–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Van Gils M, Klijn E-H (2007) Complexity in decision making: the case of the Rotterdam harbour expansion. Connecting decision, arenas and actors in spatial decision making. Plan Theory Pract 8:139–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vleuten E, van der Kaijser A (2006) Networking Europe: transnational infrastructures and the shaping of Europe, 1850–2000. Science History Publications, Sagamore BeachGoogle Scholar
  86. Weisse R, von Storch H (2009) Marine climate and climate change: storms, wind waves and storm surges. Springer-Praxis Books, NY, p 200Google Scholar
  87. Zewail A (2008) Mediterranean scientopolitics. Science 321:1417CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicola M. Pugno
    • 1
    Email author
  • Richard B. Cathcart
    • 2
  • Joseph J. Friedlander
    • 3
  1. 1.Politecnico Di TorinoTurinItaly
  2. 2.GeographosBurbankUSA
  3. 3.Shave ShomronIsrael

Personalised recommendations