Advertisement

Aral Sea Rehabilitation with Irtysh Imports

  • Roelof D. SchuilingEmail author
  • Viorel Badescu
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Many years ago a major macro-project was proposed by Russian scientists to divert water from major Siberian rivers and use this water to irrigate the steppes of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. At that time the plan was dismissed as megalomaniac, and it was proclaimed that it would have dire implications for the climate. Since then the runoffs from the two rivers that feed into the Aral Sea, the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya have been used to irrigate the steppes. This has made Uzbekistan (and to a lesser degree Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan) one of the leading cotton producers in the world, at the cost, however, of causing the Aral Sea (which is an endorheic lake) to evaporate and transform into a dusty salt plain. Ironically, it has led indeed to a climate change for the worse, as the winter rains have become scarcer in the region.

Keywords

Tunnel Boring Machine Siberian River Municipal Waste Water Intake Point Irtysh River 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Blagov S (2002) Russian water on troubled soils. Asian Times, December 18Google Scholar
  2. Blinov LK (1962) The physico-chemical properties of Caspian waters and their comparable characteristics. Trudi Gos Okeanograf Inst (GOIN) 68:7–28Google Scholar
  3. Boomer I, Aladin N, Plotnikov I, Whatley R (2000) The palaeolimnology of the Aral Sea: a review. Quat Sci Rev 19:1259–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cathcart RB (2008) Aral Sea refill: seawater importation macroproject. http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/A/Aral_Sea_refill.html. Accessed 15 December 2008
  5. Davies BR, Thoms M, Meador M (1992) An assessment of the ecological impacts of inter-basin water transfers, and their threats to river basin integrity and conservation. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 2:325–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davydov MM (1949) The Ob’-Aral-Caspian water connection. Gidrotekhnicheskoye Stroitelstvo 3:6–11Google Scholar
  7. Duke DF (2006) Seizing favours from nature: the rise and fall of Siberian River diversion, pp. 3–34. In: Tvedt T, Jakobsson E (eds) A history of water: water control and river biographies. I.B. Tauris,  p 320Google Scholar
  8. Ezekiel Water Project (2008) Tunnelling design and construction Methodologies. http://www.ezekielproject.org/estimate.shtml. Accessed 15 December 2008
  9. Létolle R, Aladin N, Filipov I, Boroffka NGO (2005) The future chemical evolution of the Aral Sea from 2000 to the years 2050. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 10:51–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liu C, Zheng H (2002) South-to-north water transfer schemes for China. J Arid Environ 18:453–471Google Scholar
  11. Micklin PP (2007) The Aral Sea disaster. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 35:47–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Micklin P, Aladin NV (2008) Reclaiming the Aral Sea. Sci Am 298:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Paustovsky K (1932) Kara-Bugaz (Black Gulf, English translation in Hyperion Press, Westport, Conn. 1977)Google Scholar
  14. Pearce F (2004) Russia reviving massive river diversion plan. New Scientist, February 2004Google Scholar
  15. Peterson BJ, Holmes RM, McClelland JW, Vorosmarty CJ, Lammers RB, Shiklomanov AI, Shiklomanov IA, Rahmstorf S (2002) Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean. Science 298:2171–2173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Salay J (1988) The Soviet Union river diversion project. From plan to cancellation, 1976–1986. Research Report no 17, Uppsala papers in economic history, 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Savoskul OS, Chevnina EV, Perziger FI, Vasilina LYu, Baburin VL, Danshin AI, Matyakubov B, Murakaev RR (2003) Water, climate, food, and environment in the Syr Darya Basin, contribution to the project ADAPT, Adaptation strategies to changing environments, July 2003. In: Savoskul OS (ed) Project funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign AffairsGoogle Scholar
  18. Schuiling RD, Andriessen PAM, Frapporti G, Kreulen R, de Leeuw JW, Poorter RPE, de Smeth JB, Vergouwen AA, Vriend SP, Zuurdeeg BW (1994) Introduction to geochemistry, 6th edn. Delft University Press, Delft,  p 350Google Scholar
  19. Schuiling RD, Badescu V, Cathcart RB, Seoud J, Hanekamp J (2007) Power from closing the Red Sea: economic and ecological costs and benefits following the isolation of the Red Sea. Int J Glob Environ Issues 7(4):341–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Svitoch AA (2008) The Khvalynian transgression of the Caspian Sea and the New-Euxinian basin of the Black Sea. Water Resour 35:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vijayan J, Schultz G (2007) Experiences with interbasin water transfers for irrigation drainage and flood management. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), IndiaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Polytechnic University of BucharestBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations