Aral Sea Partial Refill with Imported Caspian Sea Water

  • Richard B. Cathcart
  • Viorel Badescu
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


In 1960, the Aral Sea’s volume was slightly more than 1,000 km3 with a salinity of ~10 g/L. Its level stood at ~53 m above the world-ocean’s mean sea-level—almost what it was ca. 200 ad—but, by 2007, its level had dropped to ~30 m above the world’s prevailing ocean level (Glantz 2007; Micklin 2007) (Fig. 1.)


Western Basin Free Water Surface Duct Diameter Tension Textile Give Flow Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank Prof. R.D. Schuiling (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Dr. A.A. Bolonkin (C & R, New York City, USA) for useful comments and discussions.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GeographosBurbankUSA
  2. 2.Polytechnic University of BucharestBucharestRomania

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