Wave Energy Assessments and Modeling of Wave–Current Interactions in the Black Sea

  • Eugen RusuEmail author
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


The Black Sea is semi-isolated sea located between southeastern Europe and Anatolia, that can be considered as a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Mediterranean by the Turkish Straits System (composed of the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara), and to the Sea of Azov by way of the Strait of Kerch.


Wave Height Significant Wave Height Wave Direction Danube Delta Maximum Significant Wave Height 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Almazov A, Bondar C, Diaconu C, Ghederim V, Mihailov V, Miţă P, Nichiforov I, Rai I, Rodionov N, Stănescu S, Stănescu V, Vaghin N (1963) Hydrological monography of the Danube’s mouths, Romanian State Department of the Water, BucharestGoogle Scholar
  2. Alves JHGM, Banner ML (2003) Performance of a saturation-based dissipation-rate source term in modelling the fetch-limited evolution of wind waves. J Phys Oceanogr 33:1274–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Booij N, Holthuijsen LH (1987) Propagation of ocean waves in discrete spectral wave models. J Comput Phys 68:307–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Booij N, Ris RC, Holthuijsen LH (1999) A third generation wave model for coastal regions. Part 1: model description and validation. J Geophys Res 104(C4):7649–7666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bretherton FP, Garrett CJR (1968) Wavetrains in inhomogeneous moving media. Proc Roy Soc (Lond) Ser A 302(1471):529–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CERC (1984) Shore protection manual. Coastal Engineer Research Center, US Army Corps of Eng, Washington DC: US Govt Printing OfficeGoogle Scholar
  7. Christoffersen JB (1982) Current depth refraction of dissipative water waves. Series Paper 30, Inst Hydrodyn and Hydraul Eng, Tech Univ Denmark, LyngbyGoogle Scholar
  8. Elliott AJ (1986) Share diffusion and spread of oil in the surface layers of the North sea. Dt Hydrogr Z 39:113–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guedes Soares C (2008) Hindcast of dynamic processes of the ocean and coastal areas of Europe. Coast Eng 55(11):825–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guedes Soares C, de Pablo H (2006) Experimental study of the transformation of wave spectra by a uniform current. Ocean Eng 33:293–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guedes Soares C, Weisse R, Carretero JC, Alvarez E (2002) A 40 years hindcast of wind, sea level and waves in European waters. OMAE2002–SR28604 (Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Conference held in Oslo, Norway, 23–28 June 2002)Google Scholar
  12. Hasselmann K (1974) On the spectral dissipation of ocean waves due to white-cap. Bound-layer Meteor 6(1–2):107–127Google Scholar
  13. Holthuijsen H (2007) Waves in oceanic and coastal waters. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Holthuijsen LH, Herman A, Booij N (2003) Phase-decoupled refraction-diffraction for spectral wave models. Coast Eng 49:291–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hsu SA, Meindl EA, Gilhousen D (1994) Determining the power-law wind-profile exponent under near-neutral stability conditions at sea. J Appl Met 33(6):757–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Janssen PAEM (1991) Quasi-linear theory of wind-wave generation applied to wave forecasting. J Phys Oceanogr 21:1631–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Janssen PAEM (2003) Nonlinear four-wave interactions and freak waves. J Phys Oceanogr 33:863–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jonsson IG (1990) Wave–current interactions. In: Le Mehaute B, Hanes DM (eds) The sea, vol. 9, part A, Chapter 3. Wiley, New York, pp 65–120Google Scholar
  19. Jonsson IG, Christoffersen JB (1985) Current depth refraction of regular waves. In: Nineteenth coastal engineering conference held in Houston, Texas USA, 3–7 September 1984, pp 1103–1117Google Scholar
  20. Komen GJ, Hasselmann S, Hasselmann K (1984) On the existence of a fully developed wind sea spectrum. J Phys Oceanogr 14:1271–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lakshmi HK, Clayson CA (2000) Small scale processes in geophysical fluid flows. In: AP – International geophysics series, vol 67, Academic Press, San Diego, p 888Google Scholar
  22. Massel SR (1996) Ocean surface waves: their physics and prediction. In: Advanced series on ocean engineering, vol 11. World Scientific, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  23. Oguz T, La Violette PE, Unluata U (1992) The upper layer circulation of the Black Sea: its variability as inferred from hydrographic and satellite observations. J Geophys Res 97(C8):12569–12584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Onorato M, Waseda T, Toffoli A, Cavaleri L, Gramstad O, Janssen PA, Kinoshita T, Monbaliu J, Mori N, Osborne AR, Serio M, Stansberg CT, Tamura H, Trulsen K (2009) Statistical properties of directional ocean waves. Phys Rev Lett 102:114502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rusu E (2009) Wave energy assessments in the Black Sea. J Mar Sci Tech 14(3):359–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rusu L, Guedes C (2007) Modelling of the wave–current interactions in the Tagus Estuary. In: Guedes Soares C, Kolev P (eds) Maritime industry, ocean engineering and coastal resources, vol II. Francis & Taylor, London, pp 801–810Google Scholar
  27. Rusu E, Guedes Soares C (2008) Wave energy assessments in the coastal environment of Portugal Continental. OMAE08-57820 (offshore mechanics and arctic engineering conference – OMAE2008 held in Estoril, Portugal, 15–20 June 2008)Google Scholar
  28. Rusu E, Rusu L, Guedes Soares C (2006) Assessing of extreme wave conditions in the Black Sea with numerical models. In: Ninth international workshop on wave hindcasting and forecasting held in Victoria, Canada, 25–29 September 2006Google Scholar
  29. Samuels WB, Huang NE, Amstutz DE (1982) An oil spill trajectory analysis model with a variable wind deflection angle. Ocean Eng 9:347–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stănica A, Panin N (2009) Present evolution and future predictions for the deltaic coastal zone between the Sulina and Sf. Gheorghe Danube river mouths. Geomorphology 107:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stelling GS, Leendertse JJ (1992) Approximation of convective processes by cyclic AOI methods. In: Estuarine and coastal modeling conference held in Tampa, Florida USA, 13–15 November 1992, pp 771–782Google Scholar
  32. Valchev N, Pilar P, Cherneva Z, Guedes Soares C (2004). Set-up and validation of a third-generation wave model for the Black Sea. In: Seventh conference on marine science and technology BLACK SEA2004 held in Varna, Bulgaria, 7–9 October 2004, pp 273–279Google Scholar
  33. Van Vledder GPh, Hurdle DP (2002) Performance of formulations for whitecapping in wave prediction models. In: OMAE2002-28146 (offshore mechanics and arctic engineering conference held in oslo, Norway, 23–28 June 2002)Google Scholar
  34. WAMDI Group (1988) The WAM model—a third generation ocean wave prediction model. J Phys Oceanogr 18:1775–1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yan L (1987) An improved wind input source term for third generation ocean wave modelling. Scientific report WR-No 87-8, De Bilt, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Dunărea de Jos of GalaţiGalatiRomania

Personalised recommendations