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Climate Change and Protected Areas in Bolivia

Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)

Abstract

Climate change is probably the main challenge humanity is facing in the twenty-first century, and even though Bolivia belongs to the nations least responsible for global greenhouse gas output, the impacts of climate change and global warming (glacier retreat in the Cordillera mountain range; droughts in the Altiplano, the inner Andean dry valleys, and the Chaco region; inundations in the Beni lowlands) are affecting an ever increasing number of people. Thus, to tackle the impacts of climate change in Bolivia is not only a task for political authorities at national, departmental, municipal, or communal level, but also one that has to be taken up by the management practitioners of the country’s protected areas. Nonetheless, the impacts of climate change are not yet a central issue in the management of the Bolivian National Protected Area System.

This article shows how protected areas are “victims” of climate change, since their biodiversity is being affected by rising temperatures and changes in the hydrological regime; we also analyse in what ways Bolivia’s protected areas are a fundamental element in the drafting of mitigation and adaptation strategies, considering the importance they have in maintaining ecosystem resilience and the provision of environmental services.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Roberto Ulloa, and two anonymous reviewers for their very helpful advice and comments.

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Appendix: National Protected Areas of Bolivia

Appendix: National Protected Areas of Bolivia

Protected Area

Extention (ha)

Department

Year of declaration

Year management established

Main ecosystems included

Parque Nacional Sajama

100,230

Oruro

1939

1995

Puna Desértica con Pisos Nivales y Subnivales de la Cordillera Occidental

Parque Nacional Tunari

300,000

Cochabamba

1962

s/d

Puna Semihúmeda, Yungas

Parque Nacional y Territorio Indígena Isiboro-Sécure

1,236,296

Cochabamba/Beni

1965

1995

Bosques Amazónicos Pre- y Subandinos, Sabanas Inundables de los Llanos de Moxos

Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Nacional Apolobamba

483,743

La Paz

1972

1977

Yungas, Vegetación Altoandina de la Cordillera Oriental con Pisos Nivales y Subnivales

Reserva Nacional de Fauna Andina Eduardo Avaroa

714,745

Potosí

1973

1994

Puna Desértica con Pisos Nivales y Subnivales de la Cordillera Occidental

Reserva Nacional de Vida Silvestre Amazónica Manuripi

747,000

Pando

1973

1999

Bosques Amazónicos de Pando y de Inundación

Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado

1,523,446

Santa Cruz

1979

1992

Bosques Amazónicos del Beni y Santa Cruz, Cerrado Chiquitano, Bosques Amazónicos de Inundación

Reserva de la Biosfera Estación Biológica del Beni

135,000

Beni

1982

1985

Bosques Amazónicos Preandinos, Sabanas Inundables de los Llanos de Moxos

Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Amboró

637,600

Santa Cruz

1984

1989

Yungas, Bosques Amazónicos Subandinos, Bosque Tucumano – Boliviano

Parque Nacional Torotoro

16,570

Potosí

1989

1997

Bosques Secos Interandinos

Reserva Nacional de Flora y Fauna Tariquía

246,870

Tarija

1989

1995

Bosque Tucumano – Boliviano, Chaco Serrano

Parque Nacional Carrasco

622,600

Cochabamba

1991

1992

Yungas, Bosques Amazónicos Subandinos y otros

Reserva Biológica de la Cordillera de Sama

108,500

Tarija

1991

1997

Puna Semihúmeda, Bosque Tucumano – Boliviano

Reserva de la Biosfera y Territorio Indígena Pilón Lajas

400,000

La Paz/Beni

1992

1992

Bosques Amazónicos Subandinos, Yungas

Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Cotapata

40,000

La Paz

1993

1993

Yungas, Vegetación Altoandina de la Cordillera Oriental con pisos Nivales y Subnivales

Área Natural de Manejo Integrado San Matías

2,918,500

Santa Cruz

1995

1999

Bosque Seco Chiquitano, Sabanas Inundables del Pantanal, Cerrado Chiquitano

Parque Nacional y Área Natural de manejo Integrado Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco

3,441,115

Santa Cruz

1995

1995

Gran Chaco (Cerrado Chaqueño)

Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Madidi

1,895,750

La Paz

1995

1995

Yungas, Bosques Amazónicos Sub- y Preandinos, Bosques Secos Interandinos y otros

Área Natural de Manejo Integrado El Palmar

59,484

Chuquisaca

1997

2002

Bosques Secos Interandinos, Chaco Serrano

Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Otuquis

1,005,950

Santa Cruz

1997

2002

Sabanas Inundables del Pantanal, Cerrado Chaqueño, Bosque Seco Chiquitano

Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Serranía del Aguaragüe

108,307

Tarija

2000

2007

Bosque Tucumano – Boliviano, Chaco Serrano, Gran Chaco

Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Serranía del Iñao

263,090

Chuquisaca

2004

2007

Bosque Tucumano – Boliviano, Chaco Serrano

Total (has)

17,004,796

    
  1. Source: Ibisch and Mérida 2003; SERNAP 2007
  2. s/d: No data

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Hoffmann, D., Oetting, I. (2011). Climate Change and Protected Areas in Bolivia. In: Leal Filho, W. (eds) The Economic, Social and Political Elements of Climate Change. Climate Change Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14776-0_23

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