Anti-counterfeiting: Mixing the Physical and the Digital World

  • Darko KirovskiEmail author
Part of the Information Security and Cryptography book series (ISC)


Counterfeiting is as old as the human desire to create objects of value. For example, historians have identified counterfeit coins just as old as the corresponding originals. Archeological findings have identified examples of counterfeit coins from 500 BC netting a 600+% instant profit to the counterfeiter [2]. Test cuts were likely to be the first counterfeit detection procedure – with an objective to test the purity of the inner structure of the coin. The appearance of counterfeit coins with already engraved fake test cuts initiated the cat-and-mouse game between counterfeiters and original manufacturers that has lasted to date [2].


Credit Card Illegal Trade Substantial Revenue Malicious Party Business Software Alliance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    D.B. Avdeev, Three-dimensional electromagnetic modelling and inversion: from theory to application. Surv. Geophys. 26, 767–799 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Barry, Counterfeits and Counterfeiters: The Ancient World. Available on-line at:
  3. 3.
    D.W. Bauder, Personal CommunicationGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.W. Bauder, An Anti-Counterfeiting Concept for Currency Systems. Research Report PTK-11990, Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM, 1983Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Bellare, P. Rogaway, in The Exact Security of Digital Signatures How to Sign with RSA and Rabin. EUROCRYPT (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1996), pp. 399–414Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Britt, Credit Card Skimming: Growing Trend or Media Hype? Transaction World Magazine, September, 2001. Available on-line at:
  7. 7.
    Y. Chen, M.K. Mihcak, D. Kirovski, Certifying authenticity via fiber-infused paper. ACM SIGecom Exch. 5(3), 29–37 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Church, D. Littman, Machine reading of Visual Counterfeit Deterrent Features and Summary of US Research, 1980–1990. Four Nation Group on Advanced Counterfeit Deterrence, Canada, 1991.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Collins, RFID fibers for secure applications. RFID J. (2004). Available on-line at:
  10. 10.
    Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems (CETS), Counterfeit Deterrent Features for the Next-Generation Currency Design. (The National Academic Press, Washington, DC, 1993)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Creo, Inc, Available on-line at:
  12. 12.
    CrossID, Inc, Firewall Protection for Paper Documents. Available on-line at:
  13. 13.
    G. DeJean, D. Kirovski, in Radio Frequency Certificates of Authenticity. IEEE Antenna and Propagation Symposium (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. DeJean, D. Kirovski, in RF-DNA: Radio-Frequency Certificates of Authenticity. Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4727 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 346–363Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Dierks, E. Rescorla, The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2. Internet draft, available on-line at:
  16. 16.
    P.P. Ewald, Ann. Phys. 49, 1–56 (1915)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. Gassend, D. Clarke, M. van Dijk, S. Devadas, in Silicon Physical Random Functions. ACM Computer and Communication Security Conference (ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Guajardo, S. Kumar, G. Schrijen, P. Tuyls, in FPGA Intrinsic PUFs and Their Use for IP Protection. Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    IEEE 1363-2000: Standard Specifications For Public Key Cryptography, 2000. Available on-line at:
  20. 20.
    Inkode, Inc, Available on-line at:
  21. 21.
    D. Kirovski, in Toward an Automated Verification of Certificates of Authenticity. ACM Electronic Commerce (ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2004) pp. 160–169Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Kocher, J. Jaffe, B. Jun, in Differential Power Analysis. CRYPTO, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1999) pp. 388–397Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.-W. Lee, D. Lim, B. Gassend, G.E. Suh, M. van Dijk, S. Devadas, in A Technique to Build a Secret Key in Integrated Circuits with Identification and Authentication Applications. IEEE VLSI Circuits Symposium (IEEE Press, 2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Lofstrom, W.R. Daasch, D. Taylor, in IC Identification Circuit Using Device Mismatch. IEEE ISSCC, 2000, pp. 372–373Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Microwave Engineering Europe, CAD benchmark. Oct 2000 – Feb 2001. Available on-line at:
  26. 26.
    C.W. Oseen, Uber die Wechrelwirkung zwischen zwei elektrischen Dipolen und uber die Drehung der Polarisationsebene in Kristallen und Flussigkeiten. Ann. Phys. 48, 1–56 (1915)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. Pappu, Physical One-Way Functions. Ph.D. thesis, MIT, 2001Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Pappu et al., Physical one-way functions. Science 297(5589), 2026–2030 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R.L. Rivest, A. Shamir, L. Adleman, A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems. Commun. ACM 21(2), 120–126 (1978)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    RF SAW, Inc, Available on-line at:
  31. 31.
    G.J. Simmons, in Identification of Data, Devices, Documents and Individuals. IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (IEEE Press, 1991) pp. 197–218Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    B. Škorić. On the entropy of keys derived from laser speckle, In Journal of optics A: Pure and Applied Optics Create an alert, vol. 10, no. 5 (IOP Publishing, UK, Mar 2008)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.N. Tikhonov, V.A. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-posed Problems. (Winston & Sons, Washington, 1977)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    P. Tuyls, B. Škorić, Strong authentication with physical unclonable functions. in Security, Privacy and Trust in Modern Data Management, ed. by M. Petković, W. Jonker. Data-Centric Systems and Applications (Springer, 2007)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. Wolf, A generalized extinction theorem and its role in scattering theory. in Coherence and Quantum Optics, ed. by L. Mandel, E. Wolf. (Plenum, New York, NY, 1973)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Microsoft ResearchRedmondUSA

Personalised recommendations