Developmental Relationship and Convergence Between the Formation of Lymphoid Organs and Lymphatic Vasculature
The lymphatic system ensures a continuous flow of interstitial fluid and cell transfer through the lymph nodes and into the blood circulation. In addition, lymphatic capillaries also play an important role in the egress of lymphocytes from secondary lymphoid tissues. The specialization of lymphatic endothelium and its synchronization with the local blood vessel formation are crucial for proper lymph node circulation. The embryonic appearance of lymphatic vessels on one hand is the result of a separate endothelial commitment but may also be initiated by nonendothelial cells under pathological conditions. This chapter outlines those fate-determining events, transcription factors, and endothelial growth factors that are necessary for the establishment of lymphatic endothelium identity, and the relationship between the lymphatic vessel development and lymph node formation.
KeywordsLymphatic Vessel Hemopoietic Cell Lymphatic Capillary Cardinal Vein Lymphatic Circulation
- Adams RH, Wilkinson GA, Weiss C, Diella F, Gale NW, Deutsch U, Risau W, Klein R. (1999) Roles of ephrinB ligands and EphB receptors in cardiovascular development: demarcation of arterial/venous domains, vascular morphogenesis, and sprouting angiogenesis. Genes Dev 13:295–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jussila L, Valtola R, Partanen TA, Salven P, Heikkila P, Matikainen MT, Renkonen R, Kaipainen A, Detmar M, Tschachler E, Alitalo R, Alitalo K (1998) Lymphatic endothelium and Kaposi’s sarcoma spindle cells detected by antibodies against the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, Cancer Res 58:1599–1604PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maruyama K, Ii M, Cursiefen C, Jackson DG, Keino H, Tomita M, Van Rooijen N, Takenaka H, D’Amore PA, Stein-Streilein J, Losordo DW, Streilein JW (2005) Inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis in the cornea arises from CD11b-positive macrophages. J Clin Invest 115:2363–2372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petrova TV, Karpanen T, Norrmén C, Mellor R, Tamakoshi T, Finegold D, Ferrell R, Kerjaschki D, Mortimer P, Ylä-Herttuala S, Miura N, Alitalo K (2004) Defective valves and abnormal mural cell recruitment underlie lymphatic vascular failure in lymphedema distichiasis. Nat Med 10:974–981CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shin JW, Min M, Larrieu-Lahargue F, Canron X, Kunstfeld R, Nguyen L, Henderson JE, Bikfalvi A, Detmar M, Hong YK (2006) Prox1 promotes lineage-specific expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-3 in lymphatic endothelium: a role for FGF signaling in lymphangiogenesis. Mol Biol Cell 17:576–584CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar