Abstract
Confinement in nonabelian gauge theory involves the idea that the vacuum state is disordered at large scales; our best evidence that this is true comes from Monte Carlo simulations of lattice gauge theories. So to begin with, I need to explain what is meant by

a disordered state,

a lattice gauge theory,

a Monte Carlo simulation.
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Notes
 1.
The construction was first introduced by Wegner [2].
 2.
This leadingorder (in 1/m ^{2}) result is obtained by neglecting the onelink term in S _{ matter } everywhere except along the timelike links from t = 0 to t = T, at x = 0 and x = R. On these links, expand \(\exp[\phi^\dagger U_0 {\phi}+\hbox{h.c.}] \approx 1 + \phi^{\dagger}U_0 {\phi}+\hbox{h.c.}\). Integration over the scalar field then yields the result (2.32).
 3.
One approach, based on the nonabelian Stokes Law, derives an area law for a large Wilson loop from an assumed finite range behavior of field strength correlators, which means that field strengths are uncorrelated, i.e. disordered, at sufficiently large separations. This “field correlator” approach to magnetic disorder has been pursued by Simonov and coworkers [10].
 4.
The Wilson loop calculation is a little easier in two dimensions with free boundary conditions. Periodic boundary conditions introduce a correction which is irrelevant for N _{ p } large.
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Greensite, J. (2010). Global Symmetry, Local Symmetry, and the Lattice. In: An Introduction to the Confinement Problem. Lecture Notes in Physics, vol 821. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/9783642143823_2
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/9783642143823_2
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