Lignocellulose-Degrading Enzymes in Soils

  • Petr BaldrianEmail author
  • Jaroslav Šnajdr
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 22)


Biopolymers contained within or derived from plant biomass form are by far the largest pool of soil carbon. The decomposition of lignocellulose in the soil environment thus attracts considerable attention. Lignocellulose is composed mainly of the polysaccharidic polymers cellulose and hemicelluloses , and the polyphenolic polymer lignin . During transformation in soils, humic substances (humus, humic, and fulvic acids) are formed from both lignocellulose and structural components of microbial decomposers. This is achieved through the concerted action of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, whose activity is regulated by soil properties, land use and the identity of their microbial producers. Soil fungi seem to be the most important players in lignocellulose transformation processes due to their ability to attack both polysaccharides and polyphenols in the soil organic matter. While some basic concepts of regulation of enzymatic activity have been outlined, questions regarding enzyme production and diversity at the molecular level are just recently being opened.


Humic Substance Microbial Biomass Forest Soil Fungal Biomass Laccase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Financial support from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (Project LC06066) and from the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (Project QH72216) is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Acosta-Martinez V, Klose S, Zobeck TM (2003) Enzyme activities in semiarid soils under conservation reserve program, native rangeland, and cropland. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 166:699–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acosta-Martinez V, Mikha MM, Vigil MF (2007a) Microbial communities and enzyme activities in soils under alternative crop rotations compared to wheat-fallow for the Central Great Plains. Appl Soil Ecol 37:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acosta-Martinez V, Cruz L, Sotomayor-Ramirez D, Perez-Alegria L (2007b) Enzyme activities as affected by soil properties and land use in a tropical watershed. Appl Soil Ecol 35:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajwa HA, Dell CJ, Rice CW (1999) Changes in enzyme activities and microbial biomass of tallgrass prairie soil as related to burning and nitrogen fertilization. Soil Biol Biochem 31:769–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldrian P (2004) Increase of laccase activity during interspecific interactions of white-rot fungi. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 50:245–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldrian P (2006) Fungal laccases – occurrence and properties. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:215–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldrian P (2008a) Wood-inhabiting ligninolytic basidiomycetes in soils: ecology and constraints for applicability in bioremediation. Fungal Ecol 1:4–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baldrian P (2008b) Enzymes of saprotrophic Basidiomycetes. In: Boddy L, Frankland JC, van West P (eds) Ecology of saprotrophic Basidiomycetes. Academic, Amsterdam, pp 19–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baldrian P (2010) Effect of heavy metals on saprotrophic soil fungi. In: Sherameti I, Varma A (eds) Soil heavy metals. Springer, New York, pp 263–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baldrian P, Valášková V (2008) Degradation of cellulose by basidiomycetous fungi. FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:501–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baldrian P, Trögl J, Frouz J, Šnajdr J, Valášková V, Merhautová V, Cajthaml T, Herinková J (2008) Enzyme activities and microbial biomass in topsoil layer during spontaneous succession in spoil heaps after brown coal mining. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2107–2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bending GD, Read DJ (1997) Lignin and soluble phenolic degradation by ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. Mycol Res 101:1348–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berg B, Steffen KT, McClaugherty C (2007) Litter decomposition rate is dependent on litter Mn concentrations. Biogeochemistry 82:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bergstrom DW, Monreal CT (1998) Increased soil enzyme activities under two row crops. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:1295–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blackwood CB, Waldrop MP, Zak DR, Sinsabaugh RL (2007) Molecular analysis of fungal communities and laccase genes in decomposing litter reveals differences among forest types but no impact of nitrogen deposition. Environ Microbiol 9:1306–1316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boerner REJ, Brinkman JA (2003) Fire frequency and soil enzyme activity in southern Ohio oak-hickory forests. Appl Soil Ecol 23:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boerner REJ, Decker KLM, Sutherland EK (2000) Prescribed burning effects on soil enzyme activity in a southern Ohio hardwood forest: a landscape-scale analysis. Soil Biol Biochem 32:899–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bohme L, Langer U, Bohme F (2005) Microbial biomass, enzyme activities and microbial community structure in two European long-term field experiments. Agric Ecosyst Environ 109:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bonnarme P, Perez J, Jeffries TW (1991) Regulation of ligninase production in white-rot fungi. ACS Symp Ser 460:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bonnett SAF, Ostle N, Freeman C (2006) Seasonal variations in decomposition processes in a valley-bottom riparian peatland. Sci Total Environ 370:561–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burns RG, Dick RP (2002) Enzymes in the environment: activity, ecology and applications. Marcel Dekker, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carreiro MM, Sinsabaugh RL, Repert DA, Parkhurst DF (2000) Microbial enzyme shifts explain litter decay responses to simulated nitrogen deposition. Ecology 81:2359–2365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ceccanti B, Doni S, Macci C, Cercignani G, Masciandaro G (2008) Characterization of stable humic-enzyme complexes of different soil ecosystems through analytical isoelectric focussing technique (IEF). Soil Biol Biochem 40:2174–2177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Claus H, Filip Z (1997) The evidence of a laccase-like enzyme activity in a Bacillus sphaericus strain. Microbiol Res 152:209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Colpaert JV, van Laere A (1996) A comparison of the extracellular enzyme activities of two ectomycorrhizal and a leaf-saprotrophic basidiomycete colonizing beech leaf litter. New Phytol 134:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Colpaert JV, van Tichelen KK (1996) Decomposition, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization from beech leaf litter colonized by ectomycorrhizal or litter-decomposing basidiomycetes. New Phytol 134:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Courty PE, Breda N, Garbaye J (2007) Relation between oak tree phenology and the secretion of organic matter degrading enzymes by Lactarius quietus ectomycorrhizas before and during bud break. Soil Biol Biochem 39:1655–1663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Criquet S, Farnet AM, Tagger S, Le Petit J (2000) Annual variations of phenoloxidase activities in an evergreen oak litter: influence of certain biotic and abiotic factors. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1505–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Criquet S, Tagger S, Vogt G, Le Petit J (2002) Endoglucanase and β-glycosidase activities in an evergreen oak litter: annual variation and regulating factors. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1111–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dari K, Bechet M, Blondeau R (1995) Isolation of soil Streptomyces strains capable of degrading humic acids and analysis of their peroxidase activity. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 16:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. de Boer W, Folman LB, Summerbell RC, Boddy L (2005) Living in a fungal world: impact of fungi on soil bacterial niche development. FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:795–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Deacon LJ, Pryce-Miller EJ, Frankland JC, Bainbridge BW, Moore PD, Robinson CH (2006) Diversity and function of decomposer fungi from a grassland soil. Soil Biol Biochem 38:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Debosz K, Rasmussen PH, Pedersen AR (1999) Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input. Appl Soil Ecol 13:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. DeForest JL, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Burton AJ (2004) Atmospheric nitrate deposition, microbial community composition, and enzyme activity in northern hardwood forests. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:132–138Google Scholar
  35. DeForest JL, Zak DR, Pregitzer KS, Burton AJ (2005) Atmospheric nitrate deposition and enhanced dissolved organic carbon leaching: test of a potential mechanism. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:1233–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Deng SP, Tabatabai MA (1996) Effect of tillage and residue management on enzyme activities in soils.2. Glycosidases. Biol Fertil Soils 22:208–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dick RP, Sandor JA, Eash NS (1994) Soil enzyme activities after 1500 years of terrace agriculture in the Colca Valley, Peru. Agric Ecosyst Environ 50:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Doyle J, Pavel R, Barness G, Steinberger Y (2006) Cellulase dynamics in a desert soil. Soil Biol Biochem 38:371–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Drissner D, Blum H, Tscherko D, Kandeler E (2007) Nine years of enriched CO2 changes the function and structural diversity of soil microorganisms in a grassland. Eur J Soil Sci 58:260–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Edwards IP, Upchurch RA, Zak DR (2008) Isolation of fungal cellobiohydrolase I genes from sporocarps and forest soils by PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3481–3489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eivazi F, Bayan MR (1996) Effects of long-term prescribed burning on the activity of select soil enzymes in an oak-hickory forest. Can J For Res 26:1799–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ekschmitt K, Kandeler E, Poll C, Brune A, Buscot F, Friedrich M, Gleixner G, Hartmann A, Kastner M, Marhan S, Miltner A, Scheu S, Wolters V (2008) Soil-carbon preservation through habitat constraints and biological limitations on decomposer activity. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 171:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fioretto A, Papa S, Pellegrino A (2005) Effects of fire on soil respiration, ATP content and enzyme activities in Mediterranean maquis. Appl Veg Sci 8:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Freeman C, Liska G, Ostle NJ, Lock MA, Hughes S, Reynolds B, Hudson J (1997) Enzymes and biogeochemical cycling in wetlands during a simulated drought. Biogeochemistry 39:177–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frey SD, Knorr M, Parrent JL, Simpson RT (2004) Chronic nitrogen enrichment affects the structure and function of the soil microbial community in temperate hardwood and pine forests. For Ecol Manage 196:159–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garcia C, Roldan A, Hernandez T (2005) Ability of different plant species to promote microbiological processes in semiarid soil. Geoderma 124:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Giai C, Boerner REJ (2007) Effects of ecological restoration on microbial activity, microbial functional diversity, and soil organic matter in mixed-oak forests of southern Ohio, USA. Appl Soil Ecol 35:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gramss G (1997) Activity of oxidative enzymes in fungal mycelia from grassland and forest soils. J Basic Microbiol 37:407–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gramss G, Ziegenhagen D, Sorge S (1999) Degradation of soil humic extract by wood- and soil-associated fungi, bacteria, and commercial enzymes. Microb Ecol 37:140–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Griffiths R, Madritch M, Swanson A (2005) Conifer invasion of forest meadows transforms soil characteristics in the Pacific Northwest. For Ecol Manage 208:347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hatakka A (2001) Biodegradation of Lignin. In: Steinbüchel A, Hofrichter M (eds) Biopolymers 1: lignin, humic substances and coal. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 129–180Google Scholar
  52. Henriksen TM, Breland TA (1999) Nitrogen availability effects on carbon mineralization, fungal and bacterial growth, and enzyme activities during decomposition of wheat straw in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1121–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Henry HAL, Juarez JD, Field CB, Vitousek PM (2005) Interactive effects of elevated CO2, N deposition and climate change on extracellular enzyme activity and soil density fractionation in a California annual grassland. Glob Chang Biol 11:1808–1815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hofmockel KS, Zak DR, Blackwood CB (2007) Does atmospheric NO3- deposition alter the abundance and activity of ligninolytic fungi in forest soils? Ecosystems 10:1278–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hofrichter M (2002) Review: lignin conversion by manganese peroxidase (MnP). Enzyme Microb Technol 30:454–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Joanisse GD, Bradley RL, Preston CM, Munson AD (2007) Soil enzyme inhibition by condensed litter tannins may drive ecosystem structure and processes: the case of Kalmia angustifolia. New Phytol 175:535–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kahkonen MA, Wittmann C, Kurola J, Ilvesniemi H, Salkinoja-Salonen MS (2001) Microbial activity of boreal forest soil in a cold climate. Boreal Environ Res 6:19–28Google Scholar
  58. Kandeler E, Bohm KE (1996) Temporal dynamics of microbial biomass, xylanase activity, N-mineralisation and potential nitrification in different tillage systems. Appl Soil Ecol 4:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kandeler E, Eder G (1993) Effect of cattle slurry in grassland on microbial biomass and on activities of various enzymes. Biol Fertil Soils 16:249–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kästner M, Hofrichter M (2001) Biodegradation of humic substances. In: Steinbüchel A, Hofrichter M (eds) Biopolymers 1: lignin, humic substances and coal. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 349–378Google Scholar
  61. Kjoller A, Struwe S (2002) Fungal communities, succession, enzymes, and decomposition. In: Burns RG, Dick RP (eds) Enzymes in the environment: activity, ecology and applications. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 267–284Google Scholar
  62. Koch O, Tscherko D, Kandeler E (2007) Temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration, nitrogen mineralization, and potential soil enzyme activities in organic alpine soils. Global Biogeochem Cycles 21:GB4017. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lahdesmaki P, Piispanen R (1992) Soil enzymology – role of protective colloid systems in the preservation of exoenzyme activities in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 24:1173–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leonowicz A, Cho NS, Luterek J, Wilkolazka A, Wojtas-Wasilewska M, Matuszewska A, Hofrichter M, Wesenberg D, Rogalski J (2001) Fungal laccase: properties and activity on lignin. J Basic Microbiol 41:185–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lindahl BD, Ihrmark K, Boberg J, Trumbore SE, Hogberg P, Stenlid J, Finlay RD (2007) Spatial separation of litter decomposition and mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a boreal forest. New Phytol 173:611–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lipson DA, Schadt CW, Schmidt SK (2002) Changes in soil microbial community structure and function in an alpine dry meadow following spring snow melt. Microb Ecol 43:307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lucas RW, Casper BB, Jackson JK, Balser TC (2007) Soil microbial communities and extracellular enzyme activity in the New Jersey Pinelands. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2508–2519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Luis P, Walther G, Kellner H, Martin F, Buscot F (2004) Diversity of laccase genes from basidiomycetes in a forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 36:1025–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Luis P, Kellner H, Zimdars B, Langer U, Martin F, Buscot F (2005) Patchiness and spatial distribution of laccase genes of ectomycorrhizal, saprotrophic, and unknown basidiomycetes in the upper horizons of a mixed forest cambisol. Microb Ecol 50:570–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lynd LR, Weimer PJ, van Zyl WH, Pretorius IS (2002) Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:506–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Maassen S, Fritze H, Wirth S (2006) Response of soil microbial biomass, activities, and community structure at a pine stand in northeastern Germany 5 years after thinning. Can J For Res-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 36:1427–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Martin F, Selosse MA (2008) The Laccaria genome: a symbiont blueprint decoded. New Phytol 180:296–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marx MC, Kandeler E, Wood M, Wermbter N, Jarvis SC (2005) Exploring the enzymatic landscape: distribution and kinetics of hydrolytic enzymes in soil particle-size fractions. Soil Biol Biochem 37:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McCarthy AJ (1987) Lignocellulose-degrading actinomycetes. FEMS Microbiol Rev 46:145–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Monreal CM, Bergstrom DW (2000) Soil enzymatic factors expressing the influence of land use, tillage system and texture on soil biochemical quality. Can J Soil Sci 80:419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Moorhead DL, Linkins AE (1997) Elevated CO2 alters belowground exoenzyme activities in tussock tundra. Plant Soil 189:321–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morgenstern I, Klopman S, Hibbett D (2008) Molecular evolution and diversity of lignin degrading heme peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes.. J Mol Evol 66:243–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mosca E, Montecchio L, Scattolin L, Garbaye J (2007) Enzymatic activities of three ectomycorrhizal types of Quercus robur L. in relation to tree decline and thinning. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2897–2904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moscatelli MC, Lagomarsino A, De Angelis P, Grego S (2005) Seasonality of soil biological properties in a poplar plantation growing under elevated atmospheric CO2.. Appl Soil Ecol 30:162–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nagendran S, Hallen-Adams HE, Paper JM, Aslam N, Walton JD (2009) Reduced genomic potential for secreted plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita bisporigera, based on the secretome of Trichoderma reesei.. Fungal Genet Biol 46:427–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Niemi RM, Vepsalainen M (2005) Stability of the fluorogenic enzyme substrates and pH optima of enzyme activities in different Finnish soils. J Microbiol Meth 60:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Niemi RM, Vepsalainen M, Erkomaa K, Ilvesniemi H (2007) Microbial activity during summer in humus layers under Pinus silvestris and Alnus incana.. For Ecol Manage 242:314–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Niemi RM, Vepsalainen M, Wallenius K, Erkomaa K, Kukkonen S, Palojarvi A, Vestberg M (2008) Conventional versus organic cropping and peat amendment: impacts on soil microbiota and their activities. Eur J Soil Biol 44:419–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. O’Brien HE, Parrent JL, Jackson JA, Moncalvo JM, Vilgalys R (2005) Fungal community analysis by large-scale sequencing of environmental samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5544–5550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pascual JA, Garcia C, Hernandez T (1999) Lasting microbiological and biochemical effects of the addition of municipal solid waste to an arid soil. Biol Fertil Soils 30:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pavel R, Doyle J, Steinberger Y (2004) Seasonal patterns of cellulase concentration in desert soil. Soil Biol Biochem 36:549–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rasmussen PH, Knudsen IMB, Elmholt S, Jensen DF (2002) Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils. Appl Soil Ecol 19:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Reboreda R, Cacador I (2008) Enzymatic activity in the rhizosphere of Spartina maritima: potential contribution for phytoremediation of metals. Mar Environ Res 65:77–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Řezáčová V, Baldrian P, Hršelová H, Larsen J, Gryndler M (2007) Influence of mineral and organic fertilization on soil fungi, enzyme activities and humic substances in a long-term field experiment. Folia Microbiol 52:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rutigliano FA, D’Ascoli R, De Santo AV (2004) Soil microbial metabolism and nutrient status in a Mediterranean area as affected by plant cover. Soil Biol Biochem 36:1719–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Saiya-Cork KR, Sinsabaugh RL, Zak DR (2002) The effects of long term nitrogen deposition on extracellular enzyme activity in an Acer saccharum forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1309–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Salam AK, Katayama A, Kimura M (1998) Activities of some soil enzymes in different land use systems after deforestation in hilly areas of West Lampung, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 44:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sardans J, Penuelas J (2005) Drought decreases soil enzyme activity in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex L. forest. Soil Biol Biochem 37:455–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Saviozzi A, Levi-Minzi R, Cardelli R, Riffaldi R (2001) A comparison of soil quality in adjacent cultivated, forest and native grassland soils. Plant Soil 233:251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shi W, Dell E, Bowman D, Iyyemperumal K (2006) Soil enzyme activities and organic matter composition in a turfgrass chronosequence. Plant Soil 288:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sinsabaugh RL, Gallo ME, Lauber C, Waldrop MP, Zak DR (2005) Extracellular enzyme activities and soil organic matter dynamics for northern hardwood forests receiving simulated nitrogen deposition. Biogeochemistry 75:201–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sinsabaugh RL, Lauber CL, Weintraub MN, Ahmed B, Allison SD, Crenshaw C, Contosta AR, Cusack D, Frey S, Gallo ME, Gartner TB, Hobbie SE, Holland K, Keeler BL, Powers JS, Stursova M, Takacs-Vesbach C, Waldrop MP et al (2008) Stoichiometry of soil enzyme activity at global scale. Ecol Lett 11:1252–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Šnajdr J, Valášková V, Merhautová V, Cajthaml T, Baldrian P (2008a) Activity and spatial distribution of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes during forest soil colonization by saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Enzyme Microb Technol 43:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Šnajdr J, Valášková V, Merhautová V, Herinková J, Cajthaml T, Baldrian P (2008b) Spatial variability of enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the upper layers of Quercus petraea forest soil. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2068–2075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Soponsathien S (1998) Study on the production of acetyl esterase and side-group cleaving glycosidases of ammonia fungi. J Gen Appl Microbiol 44:389–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Steffen KT, Hofrichter M, Hatakka A (2000) Mineralisation of C-14-labelled synthetic lignin and ligninolytic enzyme activities of litter-decomposing basidiomycetous fungi. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54:819–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Steffen KT, Hatakka A, Hofrichter M (2002) Degradation of humic acids by the litter-decomposing basidiomycete Collybia dryophila. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3442–3448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Steffen KT, Cajthaml T, Šnajdr J, Baldrian P (2007a) Differential degradation of oak (Quercus petraea) leaf litter by litter-decomposing basidiomycetes. Res Microbiol 158:447–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Steffen KT, Schubert S, Tuomela M, Hatakka A, Hofrichter M (2007b) Enhancement of bioconversion of high-molecular mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated non-sterile soil by litter-decomposing fungi. Biodegradation 18:359–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stemmer M, Gerzabek MH, Kandeler E (1998) Organic matter and enzyme activity in particle-size fractions of soils obtained after low-energy sonication. Soil Biol Biochem 30:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stursova M, Sinsabaugh RL (2008) Stabilization of oxidative enzymes in desert soil may limit organic matter accumulation. Soil Biol Biochem 40:550–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Toberman H, Freeman C, Evans C, Fenner N, Artz RRE (2008) Summer drought decreases soil fungal diversity and associated phenol oxidase activity in upland Calluna heathland soil. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 66:426–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tscherko D, Kandeler E (1999) Classification and monitoring of soil microbial biomass, N-mineralization and enzyme activities to indicate environmental changes. Bodenkultur 50:215–226Google Scholar
  109. Tscherko D, Rustemeier J, Richter A, Wanek W, Kandeler E (2003) Functional diversity of the soil microflora in primary succession across two glacier forelands in the Central Alps. Eur J Soil Sci 54:685–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tscherko D, Hammesfahr U, Zeltner G, Kandeler E, Bocker R (2005) Plant succession and rhizosphere microbial communities in a recently deglaciated alpine terrain. Basic Appl Ecol 6:367–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Valášková V, Baldrian P (2006) Estimation of bound and free fractions of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes of wood-rotting fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Piptoporus betulinus.. Res Microbiol 157:119–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Valášková V, Šnajdr J, Bittner B, Cajthaml T, Merhautová V, Hofrichter M, Baldrian P (2007) Production of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and degradation of leaf litter by saprotrophic basidiomycetes isolated from a Quercus petraea forest. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2651–2660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. van der Wal A, van Veen JA, Smant W, Boschker HTS, Bloem J, Kardol P, van der Putten WH, de Boer W (2006) Fungal biomass development in a chronosequence of land abandonment. Soil Biol Biochem 38:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Waldrop MP, Harden JW (2008) Interactive effects of wildfire and permafrost on microbial communities and soil processes in an Alaskan black spruce forest. Glob Chang Biol 14:2591–2602Google Scholar
  115. Waldrop MP, Zak DR (2006) Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Ecosystems 9:921–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Waldrop MP, McColl JG, Powers RF (2003) Effects of forest postharvest management practices on enzyme activities in decomposing litter. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:1250–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Waldrop MP, Zak DR, Sinsabaugh RL, Gallo M, Lauber C (2004) Nitrogen deposition modifies soil carbon storage through changes in microbial enzymatic activity. Ecol Appl 14:1172–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wittmann C, Kahkonen MA, Ilvesniemi H, Kurola J, Salkinoja-Salonen MS (2004) Areal activities and stratification of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the biochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus in podsolized boreal forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 36:425–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yergeau E, Kowalchuk GA (2008) Responses of Antarctic soil microbial communities and associated functions to temperature and freeze-thaw cycle frequency. Environ Microbiol 10:2223–2235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zavarzina AG, Zavarzin AA (2006) Laccase and tyrosinase activities in lichens. Microbiology 75:546–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zeglin LH, Stursova M, Sinsabaugh RL, Collins SL (2007) Microbial responses to nitrogen addition in three contrasting grassland ecosystems. Oecologia 154:349–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Environmental MicrobiologyInstitute of Microbiology of the ASCR, v.v.iPraha 4Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations