Advertisement

Organo-Mineral–Enzyme Interaction and Soil Enzyme Activity

  • Andrew R. ZimmermanEmail author
  • Mi-Youn Ahn
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 22)

Abstract

Although we have come to know a great deal about the structure and function of enzymes for biomedical and industrial applications, much about the “real” properties of extracellular enzymes in the soil environment remains unknown due to their complex associations with soil organic matter (OM) and minerals. Microbial and enzymatic activity, nutrient availability to plants, and the very existence of OM in soils may be attributed to the degree to which extracellular enzyme activity is inhibited by adsorption to, competitive interaction with, and occlusion within the structures of soil minerals and natural OM. This chapter outlines the broad range of enzyme–organo-mineral interactions that occur in soils and the evolution of our understanding of the mechanisms behind their varied affects on soil enzyme activity.

Keywords

Organic Matter Humic Substance Humic Acid Mineral Surface Laccase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ahn MY, Martínez CE, Archibald DD, Zimmerman AR, Bollag J-M, Dec J (2006) Transformation of catechol in the presence of a laccase and birnessite. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1015–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahn MY, Zimmerman AR, Martinez CE, Archibald DD, Bollag JM, Dec J (2007) Characteristics of Trametes villosa laccase adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide. Enzyme Microb Technol 41:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison SD, Vitousek PM (2005) Responses of extracellular enzymes to simple and complex nutrient inputs. Soil Biol Biochem 37:937–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison SD (2006) Soil minerals and humic acids alter enzyme stability: implications for ecosystem processes. Biogeochem 81:361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amy PS, Caldwell BA, Soeldner AH, Morita RY, Albright LJ (1987) Microbial activity and ultrastructure of mineral-based marine snow from Howe Sound, British-Columbia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44:1135–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arai T, Norde W (1990) The behavior of some model proteins at solid-liquid interfaces 1. Adsorption from single protein solutions. Colloids Surf 51:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldock JA, Skjemstad JO (2000) Role of soil matrix and minerals in protecting natural organic materials against biological attack. Org Geochem 31:697–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron MH, Revault M, Servagent-Noinville S, Abadie J, Quiquampoix H (1999) Chymotrypsin adsorption on montmorillonite: enzymatic activity and kinetic FTIR structural analysis. J Colloid Interf Sci 214:319–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barral S, Villa-Garcia MA, Rendueles M, Diaz M (2008) Interactions between whey proteins and kaolinite surfaces. Acta Mater 56:2784–2790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boavida MJ, Wetzel RG (1998) Inhibition of phosphatase activity by dissolved humic substances and hydrolytic reactivation by natural ultraviolet light. Freshw Biol 40:285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borghetti C, Gioacchini P, Marzadori C, Gessa C (2003) Activity and stability of urease-hydroxyapatite and urease-hydroxyapatite-humic acid complexes. Biol Fertil Soils 38:96–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyd SA, Mortland M (1990) Enzyme interactions with clays and clay-organic matter complexes. In: Stotzky G, Bollag J-M (eds) Soil biochemistry, vol 6. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  13. Burns RG (1982) Enzyme activity in soil: location and a possible role in microbial ecology. Soil Biol Biochem 14:423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butler JHA, Ladd JN (1969) The effect of methylation of humic acids on their influence of proteolytic enzyme activity. Aust J Soil Res 7:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Butler JHA, Ladd JN (1971) Importance of the molecular weight of humic and fulvic acids in determining their effects on protease activity. Soil Biol Biochem 3:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calamai L, Lozzi I, Stotzky G, Fusi P, Ristori GG (2000) Interaction of catalase with montmorillonite homoionic to cations with different hydrophobicity: effect on enzymatic activity and microbial utilization. Soil Biol Biochem 32:815–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Canas AI, Alcalde M, Plou F, Martinez MJ, Martinez AT, Camarero S (2007) Transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase is strongly enhanced by phenolic compounds present in soil. Environ Sci Technol 41:2964–2971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ceccanti B, Nannipieri P, Cervelli S, Sequi P (1978) Fractionation of humus-urease complexes. Soil Biol Biochem 10:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Claus H, Filip Z (1988) Behavior of phenoloxidases in the presence of clays and other soil-related adsorbents. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 28:506–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Criquet S, Farnet AM, Tagger S, Le Petit J (2000) Annual variations of phenoloxidase activities in an evergreen oak litter: influence of certain biotic and abiotic factors. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1505–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Curry KJ, Bennett RH, Mayer LM, Curry A, Abril M, Biesiot PM, Hulbert MH (2007) Direct visualization of clay microfabric signatures driving organic matter preservation in fine-grained sediment. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:1709–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Cristofaro A, Violante A (2001) Effect of hydroxy-aluminium species on the sorption and interlayering of albumin onto montmorillonite. Appl Clay Sci 19:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dick WA, Tabatabai MA (1987) Kinetics and activities of phosphatase-clay complexes. Soil Sci 143:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dilly O, Nannipieri P (2001) Response of ATP content, respiration rate and enzyme activities in an arable and a forest soil to nutrient additions. Biol Fertil Soils 34:64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ding X, Henrichs SM (2002) Adsorption and desorption of proteins and polyamino acids by clay minerals and marine sediments. Mar Chem 77:225–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Durand G (1963) Microbiologie des sols – sur la degradation des bases puriques et pyrimidiques dans le sol – fixation de ces composes par les argiles – etude en fonction du pH et de la concentration. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 256:4126Google Scholar
  27. Ensminger LE, Gieseking JE (1939) The adsorption of proteins by montmorillonitic clays. Soil Sci 48:467–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ensminger LE, Gieseking JE (1941) The absorption of proteins by montmorillonitic clays and its effect on base-exchange capacity. Soil Sci 51:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ensminger LE, Gieseking JE (1942) Resistance of clay-adsorbed proteins to proteolytic hydrolysis. Soil Sci 53:205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Estermann EF, McLaren AD (1959) Stimulation of bacterial proteolysis by adsorbents. J Soil Sci 10:64–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fan YX, Ju M, Zhou JM, Tsou CL (1996) Activation of chicken liver dihydrofolate reductase by urea and guanidine hydrochloride is accompanied by conformational change at the active site. Biochem J 315:97–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Freeman C, Ostle NJ, Fenner N, Kang H (2004) A regulatory role for phenol oxidase during decomposition in peatlands. Soil Biol Biochem 36:1663–1667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fusi P, Ristori GG, Calamai L, Stotzky G (1989) Adsorption and binding of protein on “clean” (homoionic) and “dirty” (coated with Fe oxyhydroxides) montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite. Soil Biol Biochem 21:911–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garwood GA, Mortland MM, Pinnavaia TJ (1983) Immobilization of glucose-oxidase on montmorillonite clay – hydrophobic and ionic modes of binding. J Mol Catal 22:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Giacomelli CE, Norde W (2001) The adsorption-desorption cycle: reversibility of the BSA-silica system. J Colloid Interface Sci 233:234–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gianfreda L, Rao MA, Violante A (1991) Invertase (beta-fructosidase) – effects of montmorillonite, Al-hydroxide and Al(OH)X-montmorillonite complex on activity and kinetic-properties. Soil Biol Biochem 23:581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gianfreda L, Rao MA, Violante A (1992) Adsorption, activity and kinetic-properties of urease on montmorillonite, aluminum hydroxide and Al(OH)X-montmorillonite complexes. Soil Biol Biochem 24:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gianfreda L, Bollag JM (1994) Effect of soils on the behavior of immobilized enzymes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:1672–1681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gianfreda L, Decristofaro A, Rao MA, Violante A (1995a) Kinetic-behavior of synthetic organo-complexes and organo-mineral-urease complexes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 59:811–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gianfreda L, Rao MA, Violante A (1995b) Formation and activity of urease-tannate complexes affected by aluminum, iron, and manganese. Soil Sci Soc Am J 59:805–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goldstein L, Katchalski-Katzir E (1976) Immobilized enzymes – a survey. In: Wingard LB Jr, Goldstein L, Katchalski-Katzir E (eds) Immobilized enzyme principles, vol 1. Academic, London, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  42. Grego S, Dannibale A, Luna M, Badalucco L, Nannipieri P (1990) Multiple forms of synthetic pronase phenolic copolymers. Soil Biol Biochem 22:721–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Griffin EG, Nelson JM (1916) The influence of certain substances on the activity of invertase. J Am Chem Soc 38:722–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Haska G (1981) Activity of bacteriolytic enzymes adsorbed to clays. Microb Ecol 7:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hedges JI, Keil RG (1995) Sedimentary organic matter preservation: an assessment and speculative synthesis. Mar Chem 49:81–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hsu PH, Hatcher PG (2005) New evidence for covalent coupling of peptides to humic acids based on 2D NMR spectroscopy: a means for preservation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:4521–4533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huang QY, Liang W, Cai P (2005) Adsorption, desorption and activities of acid phosphatase on various colloidal particles from an Ultisol. Colloid Surf B 45:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hughes JD, Simpson GH (1978) Arylsulfatase-clay interactions. 2. Effect of kaolinite and montmorillonite on arylsulfatase activity. Aust J Soil Res 16:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jastrow JD, Miller RM (1997) Soil aggregate stabilization and carbon sequestration: feedbacks through organo-mineral associations. CRC, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaiser K, Guggenberger G (2000) The role of DOM sorption to mineral surfaces in the preservation of organic matter in soils. Org Geochem 31:711–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kennedy MJ, Pevear DR, Hill RJ (2002) Mineral surface control of organic carbon in black shale. Science 259:657–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. King GM, Klug MJ (1980) Sulfhydrolase activity in sediments of Wintergreen Lake, Kalamazoo-County, Michigan. Appl Environ Microbiol 39:950–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. King GM (1986) Characterization of beta-glucosidase activity in intertidal marine-sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 51:373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kunze C (1970) The effect of streptomycin and aromatic carbonic acid on the catalase activity in soil samples. Zentralbl Bakter Par 124:658–61Google Scholar
  55. Kunze C (1971) Modulation of catalase activity in soil samples with tannic, gallic and para hydroxybenzoic acids. Oecolog Plantar 6:197–202Google Scholar
  56. Kuzyakov Y, Friedel JK, Stahr K (2000) Review of mechanisms and quantification of priming effects. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1485–1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ladd JN, Butler JHA (1969) Inhibition and stimulation of proteolytic enzyme activities by soil humic acids. Aust J Soil Res 7:253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ladd JN (1972) Properties of proteolytic enzymes extracted from soil. Soil Biol Biochem 4:227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ladd JN, Butler JHA (1975) Humus-enzyme systems and synthetic, organic polymer-enzyme analogs. In: Paul EA, McLaren AD (eds) Soil biochemistry, vol 4. Marcel dekker, New York, pp 143–194Google Scholar
  60. Leprince F, Quiquampoix H (1996) Extracellular enzyme activity in soil: effect of pH and ionic strength on the interaction with montmorillonite of two acid phosphatases secreted by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum. Eur J Soil Sci 47:511–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lozzi I, Calamai L, Fusi P, Bosetto M, Stotzky G (2001) Interaction of horseradish peroxidase with montmorillonite homoionic to Na+ and Ca2+: effects on enzymatic activity and microbial degradation. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1021–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Luthy RG, Aiken GR, Brusseau ML, Cunningham SD, Gschwend PM, Pignatello JJ, Reinhard M, Traina SJ, Weber WJ Jr, Westall JC (1997) Sequestration of hydrophobic organic contaminants by geosorbents. Environ Sci Technol 31:3341–3347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Makboul HE, Ottow JCG (1979a) Michaelis constant (Km) of acid phosphatase as affected by montmorillonite, illite, and kaolinite clay-minerals. Microb Ecol 5:207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Makboul HE, Ottow JCG (1979b) Alkaline-phosphatase activity and Michaelis constant in the presence of different clay-minerals. Soil Sci 128:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Marzadori C, Gessa C, Ciurli S (1998a) Kinetic properties and stability of potato acid phosphatase immobilized on Ca-polygalacturonate. Biol Fertil Soils 27:97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marzadori C, Miletti S, Gessa C, Ciurli S (1998b) Immobilization of jack bean urease on hydroxyapatite: urease immobilization in alkaline soils. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1485–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mayaudon J, Sarkar JM (1974) Chromatography and purification of diphenol oxidases of soil. Soil Biol Biochem 6:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mayaudon J, Sarkar JM (1975) Laccases of polyporus versicolor in soil and litter. Soil Biol Biochem 7:31–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mayer LM (1994) Relationships between mineral surfaces and organic carbon concentrations in soils and sediments. Chem Geol 114:347–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mayer LM (1999) Extent of coverage of mineral surfaces by organic matter in marine sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McLaren AD (1954) The adsorption and reactions of enzymes and proteins on kaolinite. J Phys Chem 58:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McLaren AD, Estermann EF (1956) The adsorption and reactions of enzymes and proteins on kaolinite. 3. The isolation of enzyme-substrate complexes. Arch Biochem Biophys 61:158–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McLaren AD, Estermann EF (1957) Influence of pH on the activity of chymotrypsin at a solid-liquid interface. Arch Biochem Biophys 68:157–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McLaren AD, Packer L (1970) Some aspects of enzyme reactions in heterogeneous systems. Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 33:245–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Meyer-Reil LA (1986) Measurement of hydrolytic activity and incorporation of dissolved organic substrates by microorganisms in marine-sediments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 31:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Morgan HW, Corke CT (1976) Adsorption, desorption, and activity of glucose oxidase on selected clay species. Can J Microbiol 22:684–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mosbach K (1976) Introduction. In: Mosbach K (ed) Immobilized enzymes, vol 44. Academic, New York, pp 3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Naidja A, Huang PM (1996) Deamination of aspartic acid by aspartase-Ca-montmorillonite complex. J Mol Catal A: Chem 106:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Naidja A, Huang PM, Bollag JM (1997) Activity of tyrosinase immobilized on hydroxyaluminum-montmorillonite complexes. J Mol Catal A: Chem 115:305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Naidja A, Huang PM, Bollag JM (2000) Enzyme-clay interactions and their impact on transformations of natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in soil. J Environ Qual 29:677–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Naidja A, Liu C, Huang PM (2002) Formation of protein-birnessite complex: XRD, FTIR, and AFM analysis. J Colloid Interface Sci 251:46–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nannipieri P, Muccini L, Ciardi C (1983) Microbial biomass and enzyme-activities - production and persistence. Soil Biol Biochem 15:679–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nannipieri P, Ceccanti B, Bianchi D (1988) Characterization of humus phosphatase complexes extracted from soil. Soil Biol Biochem 20:683–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nelson JM, Griffin EG (1916) Adsorption of invertase. J Am Chem Soc 38:1109–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pflug W (1981) Inhibition of malate dehydrogenase by humic acids. Soil Biol Biochem 13:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pflug W (1982) Soil enzymes and clay-minerals. 2. Effect of clay-minerals on the activity of polysaccharide cleaving soil enzymes. Pflanz Bodelkunde Z 145:493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pinck LA, Allison FE (1951) Resistance of a protein-montmorillonite complex to decomposition by soil microorganisms. Science 114:130–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pinck LA, Dyal RS, Allison FE (1954) Protein-montmorillonite complexes, their preparation and the effects of soil microorganisms on their decomposition. Soil Sci 78:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Quiquampoix H (1987a) A stepwise approach to the understanding of extracellular enzyme-activity in soil.1. Effect of electrostatic interactions on the conformation of a beta-d-glucosidase adsorbed on different mineral surfaces. Biochimie 69:753–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Quiquampoix H (1987b) A stepwise approach to the understanding of extracellular enzyme-activity in soil. 2. Competitive effects on the adsorption of a beta-d-glucosidase in mixed mineral or organo mineral systems. Biochimie 69:765–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Quiquampoix H, Servagent-Noinville S, Baron M-H (2002) Enzyme adsorption on soil mineral surfaces and consequences for the catalytic activity. In: Burns RG, Dick RP (eds) Enzymes in the environment. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 285–306Google Scholar
  92. Quiquampoix H, Burns RG (2007) Interactions between proteins and soil mineral surfaces: environmental and health consequences. Elements 3:401–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rao MA, Gianfreda L, Palmiero F, Violante A (1996) Interactions of acid phosphatase with clays, organic molecules and organo-mineral complexes. Soil Sci 161:751–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rao MA, Violante A, Gianfreda L (2000) Interaction of acid phosphatase with clays, organic molecules and organo-mineral complexes: kinetics and stability. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1007–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rego JV, Billen G, Fontigny A, Somville M (1985) Free and attached proteolytic activity in water environments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 21:245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Renella G, Landi L, Valori F, Nannipieri P (2007) Microbial and hydrolase activity after release of low molecular weight organic compounds by a model root surface in a clayey and a sandy soil. Appl Soil Ecol 36:124–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosas A, Mora MD, Jara AA, Lopez R, Rao MA, Gianfreda L (2008) Catalytic behaviour of acid phosphatase immobilized on natural supports in the presence of manganese or molybdenum. Geoderma 145:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ross DJ, McNeilly BA (1972) Some influences of different soils and clay minerals on the activity of glucose. Soil Biol Biochem 4:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rowell MJ, Ladd JN, Paul EA (1973) Enzymically active complexes of proteases and humic acid analogues. Soil Biol Biochem 5:699–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ruggiero P, Radogna VM (1988) Humic acids tyrosinase interactions as a model of soil humic enzyme complexes. Soil Biol Biochem 20:353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sarkar JM, Burns RG (1983) Immobilization of beta-d-glucosidase and beta-d-glucosidase-polyphenolic complexes. Biotechnol Lett 5:619–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sarkar JM, Burns RG (1984) Synthesis and properties of beta-d-glucosidase phenolic copolymers as analogs of soil humic-Enzyme complexes. Soil Biol Biochem 16:619–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Serban A, Nissenbaum A (1986) Humic-acid association with peroxidase and catalase. Soil Biol Biochem 18:41–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Serefoglou E, Litina K, Gournis D, Kalogeris E, Tzialla AA, Pavlidis IV, Stamatis H, Maccallini E, Lubomska M, Rudolf P (2008) Smectite clays as solid supports for immobilization of beta-glucosidase: synthesis, characterization, and biochemical properties. Chem Mater 20:4106–4115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Servagent-Noinville S, Revault M, Quiquampoix H, Baron MH (2000) Conformational changes of bovine serum albumin induced by adsorption on different clay surfaces: FTIR analysis. J Colloid Interface Sci 221:273–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shindo H, Watanabe D, Onaga T, Urakawa M, Nakahara O, Huang QY (2002) Adsorption, activity, and kinetics of acid phosphatase as influenced by selected oxides and clay minerals. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 48:763–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Skujins J, Pukite A, McLaren AD (1974) Adsorption and activity of chitinase on kaolinite. Soil Biol Biochem 6:179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Skujins J (1976) Extracellular enzymes in soils. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 4:383–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Skujins J (1978) History of abiontic soil enzyme research. In: Burns RG (ed) Soil enzymes. Academic, London, pp 1–49Google Scholar
  110. Skujins JJ, Estermann EF, McLaren AD (1959) Proteolytic activity of Bacillus subtilis in a clay protein paste system analogous to soil. Can J Microbiol 5:631–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Smith JR, Cicerone MT, Meuse CW (2009) Tertiary structure changes in albumin upon surface adsorption observed via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Langmuir 25:4571–4578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sorensen LH (1969) Fixation of enzyme protein in soil by the clay mineral montmorillonite. Experientia 25:20–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Srere PA, Ueda K (1976) Functional groups on enzymes suitable for binding matrices. In: Mosbach K (ed) Immobilized enzymes, vol 44. Academic, New York, pp 3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Staunton S, Quiquampoix H (1994) Adsorption and conformation of bovine serum-albumin on montmorillonite – modification of the balance between hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions by protein methylation and pH variation. J Colloid Interface Sci 166:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Steen AD, Arnosti C, Ness L, Blough NV (2006) Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy as a novel approach to measure macromolecule-surface interactions and activities of extracellular enzymes. Mar Chem 101:266–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tan WF, Koopal LK, Weng LP, van Riemsdijk WH, Norde W (2008) Humic acid protein complexation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 72:2090–2099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tietjen T, Wetzel RG (2003) Extracellular enzyme-clay mineral complexes: enzyme adsorption, alteration of enzyme activity, and protection from photodegradation. Aquat Ecol 37:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Torn MS, Trumbore SE, Chadwick OA, Vitousek PM, Hendricks DM (1997) Mineral control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover. Nature 389:170–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Van Bodegom PM, Broekman R, Van Dijk J, Bakker C, Aerts R (2005) Ferrous iron stimulates phenol oxidase activity and organic matter decomposition in waterlogged wetlands. Biogeochem 76:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vuorinen AH, Saharinen MH (1996) Effects of soil organic matter extracted from soil on acid phosphomonoesterase. Soil Biol Biochem 28:1477–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zang X, van Heemst JDH, Dria KJ, Hatcher PG (2000) Encapsulation of protein in humic acid from a histosol as an explanation for the occurrence of organic nitrogen in soil and sediment. Org Geochem 31:679–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zang X, Nguyen RT, Harvey HR, Knicker H, Hatcher PG (2001) Preservation of proteinaceous material during the degradation of the green alga Botryococcus braunii: a solid-state 2D N-15 C-13 NMR spectroscopy study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 65:3299–3305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhang HJ, Sheng XR, Pan XM, Zhou JM (1997) Activation of adenylate kinase by denaturants is due to the increasing conformational flexibility at its active sites. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 238:382–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ziervogel K, Karlsson E, Arnosti C (2007) Surface associations of enzymes and of organic matter: consequences for hydrolytic activity and organic matter remineralization in marine systems. Mar Chem 104:241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zimmerman AR, Chorover J, Goyne KW, Brantley SL (2004a) Protection of mesopore-adsorbed organic matter from enzymatic degradation. Environ Sci Technol 38:4542–4548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zimmerman AR, Goyne KW, Chorover J, Komarneni S, Brantley SL (2004b) Mineral mesopore effects on nitrogenous organic matter adsorption. Org Geochem 35:355–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zittle CA (1953) Adsorption studies of enzymes and other proteins. Adv Enzymol Rel S Bi 14:319–374Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Soil and Water Science DepartmentUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations