Advertisement

Soil Enzyme: The State-of-Art

  • Madhunita Bakshi
  • Ajit VarmaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 22)

Abstract

Soils are home to a huge range of organisms, from microbes to moles that rely on the natural cycle of life, death, decomposition, and regeneration as a vital source of nutrients and energy. Enzymes are the key to understanding below-ground biochemistry and the role of soil in the global carbon cycle. These biological mediators of change are active both within living soil organisms and independently as extracellular proteins that are actively secreted into the soil by roots and fungi, or released as prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that die and decompose. Soil enzymes regulate ecosystem functioning and in particular play a key role in nutrient cycling. The present chapter provides a brief appraisal of the different components of soil and potential roles of selected enzymes such as Amylase, Arylsulphatase, β-glucosidase, Cellulase, Chitinase, etc. in the ecosystem.

Keywords

Laccase Activity Urease Activity Soil Enzyme Soil Enzyme Activity Biological Soil Crust 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Acosta-Martínez V, Tabatabai MA (2000) Enzyme activities in a limed agricultural soil. Biol Fertil Soils 31:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajwa HA, Tabatabai MA (1994) Decomposition of different organic materials in soils. Biol Fertil Soils 18:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alf K, Nannipieri P (1995) Cellulase activity, Methods in Applied Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews RK, Blakeley RL, Zerner B (1989) Urease: a Ni (II) metalloenzyme. In: Lancaster JR (ed) The bioinorganic chemistry of nickel. VCH Publishers, New York, pp 141–166Google Scholar
  5. Arinze AE, Yubedee AG (2000) Effect of fungicides on Fusarium grain rot and enzyme production in maize (Zea mays L.). Glob J Appl Sci 6:629–634Google Scholar
  6. Atlas RM, Pramer D, Bartha R (1978) Assessment of pesticide effects on non-target soil microorganisms. Soil Biol Biochem 10:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandick AK, Dick RP (1999) Field management effects on soil enzyme activities. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1471–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartinicki-Garcia S (1968) Cell wall chemistry, morphogenesis and taxonomy of fungi. Annu Rev Microbiol 144:346–349Google Scholar
  9. Batistic L, Sarkar JM, Mayaudon J (1980) Extraction, purification and properties of soil hydrolases. Soil Biol Biochem 12:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergstrom DW, Monreal CM, King DJ (1998) Sensitivity of soil enzyme activities to conservation practices. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:1286–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boiler T (1985) Induction of hydrolases as a defense reaction against pathogens. In: Key JL, Kosuge T (eds) Cellular and molecular biology of plum stress. Liss, New York, pp 247–262Google Scholar
  12. Boiler T, Gehri A, Mauch F, Vogeli U (1983) Chitinase in bean leaves: induction by ethylene, purification, properties and possible function. Planta 157:22–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borneman J, Skroach PW, O’Sullivian EW, Palus JA, Rumjanek NG, Jansen JL, Nienhuis J, Triplett EW (1996) Molecular microbial diversity of an agricultural soil in Wisconsin. Appl Environ Microbiol 62:1935–1943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bremner JM, Mulvaney RL (1978) Urease activity in soils. In: Bums RG (ed) Soil enzymes. Academic, London, pp 149–196Google Scholar
  15. Bruck TD (1987) The study of microorganisms in situ: progress and problems. In: Fletcher M, Gray TRG, Jones JG (eds) Ecology of microbial communities. SGM symposium 41. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 455–493Google Scholar
  16. Brzezinska M, Stepniewska Z, Stepniewski W (1998) Soil oxygen status and dehydrogenase activity. Soil Biol Biochem 30(13):1783–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burns RG (1978) Enzyme activity in soil: some theoretical and practical considerations. In: Bums RG (ed) Soil enzymes. Academic, London, pp 295–340Google Scholar
  18. Burns RG (1982) Enzyme activity in soil: location and possible role in microbial ecology. Soil Biol Biochem 14:423–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burns RG (1983) Extra cellular enzyme–substrate interactions in soil. In: Slater JH, Wittenbury R, Wimpenny JWT (eds) Microbes in their natural environment. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 249–298Google Scholar
  20. Burns RG, Pukite AH, McLaren AD (1972) Concerning the location and persistence of soil urease. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 36:308–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Byrnes BH, Amberger A (1989) Fate of broadcast urea in a flooded soil when treated with N-(n-butyl) thiophospheric triamide, a urease inhibitor. Fertil Res 18:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chet I (1987) Trichoderma-application, mode of action, and potential as biocontrol agent of soil borne pathogenic fungi. In: Chet I (ed) Innovative approaches to plant disease control. Wiley, New York, pp 137–349Google Scholar
  23. Chet I, Henis Y (1969) Effect of catechol and disodium EDTA on melanin content of hyphal and sclerotial walls of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. and the role of melanin in the susceptibility of these walls to _-l-3 glucanase and chitinase. Soil Biol Biochem 1:131–138Google Scholar
  24. Chet I, Henis Y (1975) Sclerotial morphogenesis in fungi. Annu Rev Phytopathol 13:169–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cooper PJM (1972) Arylsulphatase activity in Northern Nigerian soils. Soil Biol Biochem 4:333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Deng SP, Tabatabai MA (1994) Cellulase activity of soils. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1347–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deng SP, Tabatabai MA (1995) Cellulase activity of soils: effect of trace elements. Soil Biol Biochem 27:977–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dick RP (1994) Soil enzyme activities as indicators of soil quality. In: Doran JV, Coleman DC, Bezdicek DF, Stewart BA (eds) Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment, soil science society of America. American Society of Agriculture, Madison, pp 107–124Google Scholar
  29. Dick RP (1997) Soil enzyme activities as integrative indicators of soil health. In: Pankhurst CE, Doube BM, Gupta VVSR (eds) Biological indicators of soil health. CAB International, Wellingford, pp 121–156Google Scholar
  30. Dick WA, Tabatabai MA (1984) Kinetic parameters of phosphatase in soils and organic waste materials. Soil Sci 137:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dick WA, Tabatai MA (1992) Potential uses of soil enzymes. In: Metting FB Jr (ed) Soil microbial ecology: applications in agricultural and environmental management. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 95–127Google Scholar
  32. Dick RP, Sandor JA, Eash NS (1994) Soil enzyme activities after 1500 years of terrace agriculture in the Colca Valley, Peru. Agric Ecosyst Environ 50:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dick RP, Breakwell DP, Turco RF (1996) Soil enzyme activities and biodiversity measurements as integrative microbiological indicators. In: Methods for assessing soil quality. Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI, pp 9–17Google Scholar
  34. Dick WA, Cheng L, Wang P (2000) Soil acid and alkaline phosphatase activity as pH adjustment indicators. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1915–1919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dodgson KS, White G, Fitzgerald JW (1982) Sulphatase enzyme of microbial origin, vol I. CRC, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  36. Doelman P, Haanstra L (1979) Effect of lead on soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity. Soil Biol Biochem 11:475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Eivazi F, Tabatabai MA (1988) Glucosidases and galactosidases in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 20:601–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eriksson KEL, Blancbette RA, Ander P (1990) Biodegration of cellulose. In: Eriksson KEL, Blanchette RA, Ander P (eds) Microbial and enzymatic degradation of wood and wood components. Springer, New York, pp 89–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Esen A (1993) β-Glucosidases-biochemistry and molecular biology, ACS symposium series, 533. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Foster RC (1988) Micro environment of Soil Microorganism. Biology and Fertility of Soils 6:189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fitzgerald JW (1976) Sulphate ester formation and hydrolysis: a potentially important yet often ignored aspect of the sulphur cycle of aerobic soils. Bacteriol Rev 40:628–721Google Scholar
  42. Frank T, Malkomes HP (1993) Influence of temperature on microbial activities and their reaction to the herbicide Goltix in different soils under laboratory conditions. Zentralblatt für Mikrobiol 148:403–412Google Scholar
  43. Ganeshamurthy AM, Singh G, Singh NT (1995) Sulphur status and response of rice to sulphur on some soils of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 43:637–641Google Scholar
  44. Garcia C, Hernández T (1997) Biological and biochemical indicators in derelict soils subject to erosion. Soil Biol Biochem 29:171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Giri V, Anuradha, Nandhini A, Geetha M, Gautham P (2004) A novel medium for the enhanced cell growth and production of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens isolated from soil. BMC Microbiol 4:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Giri B, Pham HG, Rina K, Ram P, Minu S, Garg A, Oelmuller R, Varma A (2005) Mycorrhizosphere: strategies and functions. In: Buscot F, Varma A (eds) Microorganisms in soils: roles in genesis and function, 3. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 213–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Glinski J, Stepniewski W (1985) Soil aeration and its role for plants. CRC, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  48. Gomah AM (1980) CM-cellulase activity in soil as affected by addition of organic material, temperature, storage and drying and wetting cycles. Zeitschrift fuer Pflanzenernaehrung und Bodenkunde 143:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gupta VVSR, Farrell RE, Germida JJ (1993) Activity of arylsuphatases in Saskatchewan soils. Can J Soil Sci 73:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haanstra L, Doelman P (1991) An ecological dose–response model approach to short- and long-term effects of heavy metals on arylsulphatase activity in soil. Biol Fertil Soils 1:18–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hans YW, Snivasan VR (1969) Purification and characterization of β-glucosidases of Alcaligenes faecalis. J Bacteriol 100:1355–1363Google Scholar
  52. Hope CFA, Burns RG (1987) Activity, origins and location of cellulases in a silt loam soil. Biol Fert Soils 5:164–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Izaguirre-Mayoral ML, Flores S, Carballo O (2002) Determination of acid phosphatases and dehydrogenase activities in the rhizosphere of nodulated legume species native to two contrasting savannah sites in Venezuela. Biol Fertil Soils 35:470–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. James ES, Russel LW, Mitrick A (1991) Phosphate stress response in hydroponically grown maize. Plant Soil 132:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kandeler E (1996) Nitrate. In: Schinner F, Öhlinger R, Kandeler E, Margesin R (eds) Methods in soil biology. Springer, Berlin, pp 408–410Google Scholar
  56. Kanfer JN, Mumford RA, Raghavan SS, Byrd J (1974) Purification of β-glucosidase activities from bovine spleen affinity chromatography. Anal Biochem 60:200–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Khaziyev FK, Gulke AY (1991) Enzymatic activity of soils under agrocenosesa: status and problems. Pochvovedenie 8:88–103Google Scholar
  58. King NJ (1967) Glucoamylase of Coniophora cerebella. Biochem J 105:577–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Klein DA (1989) Cellulose functions in arid soil development. Arid Soil Res Rehab 3(1):85–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kranner I, Beckett RP, Varma AK (2002) Protocols in lichenology, culturing, biochemistry, ecophysiology and use in biomonitoring. Springer Lab Manual. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  61. Kuperman RG, Carreiro MM (1997) Soil heavy metal concentrations, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in a contaminated grassland ecosystem. Soil Biol Biochem 29:179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ladd JN, Jackson RB (1982) In: Stevenson FJ (Ed) Nitrogen in agricultural soils. American Society of Agronomy, WI, pp 173–228Google Scholar
  63. Leirós MC, Trasar-Cepeda C, Garcıá-Fernández F, Gil-Sotrés F (1999) Defining the validity of a biochemical index of soil quality. Biol Fertil Soils 30:140–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liesack W, Stackebrandt E (1992) Occurrence of novel groups of the domain bacteria as revealed by analysis of genetic material isolated from an Australian Terrestrial Environment. J Bacteriol 174:5072–5078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Li Y, Guohua M, Fanjun C, Jianhua Z, Fusuo Z (2004) Rhizosphere effect and root growth of two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes with contrasting P efficiency at low P availability. Plant Sci 167:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Loper JE, Hack C, Schroth MN (1985) Population dynamics of soil Pseudomonads in the rhizosphere of potato. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:2394–2399Google Scholar
  67. Lynch JM (1987a) Microbial interactions in the rhizosphere. Soil Microorg 30:33–41Google Scholar
  68. Lynch JM (1987b) Soil biology-accomplishments and potential. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1409–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Madejón E, Burgos P, López R, Cabrera F (2001) Soil enzymatic response to addition of heavy metals with organic residues. Biol Fertil Soils 34:144–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Malla R, Tanaka Y, Mori K and Totawat KL (2007) Effect of Short-term Sewage Irrigation on Chemical Build Up in Soils and Vegetables. The Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript LW 07 006 Vol. IXGoogle Scholar
  71. Martinez CE, Tabatabai MA (1997) Decomposition of biotechnology byproducts in soils. J Environ Qual 26:625–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mayaudon J, Batistic L, Sarkar JM (1975) Proprietés des activités proteolitiques extraites des sols frais. Soil Biol Biochem 7:281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McCarthy GW, Siddaramappa R, Reight RJ, Coddling EE, Gao G (1994) Evaluation of coal combustion byproducts as soil liming materials: their influence on soil pH and enzyme activities. Biol Fertil Soils 17:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McLaren AD (1975) Soil as a system of humus and clay immobilized enzymes. Chem Scripta 8:97–99Google Scholar
  75. Miwa T, Ceng CT, Fujisaki M, Toishi A (1937) Zur Frage der Spezifitat der Glykosidasen. I. Verhalted von β-d-glucosidases verschiedener Herkunft gegenuberden β-d-Glucosiden mit verschiedenen Aglykonen. Acta Phytochim (Tokyo) 10:155–170Google Scholar
  76. Nannipieri P, Sequi P, Fusi P (1996) Humus and enzyme activity. In: Piccolo A (ed) Humic substances in terrestrial ecosystems. Elsevier, New York, pp 293–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ndakidemi PA (2006) Manipulating legume/cereal mixtures to optimize the above and below ground interactions in the traditional African cropping systems. Afr J Biotechnol 5:2526–2533Google Scholar
  78. Ndiaye EL, Sandeno JM, McGrath D, Dick RP (2000) Integrative biological indicators for detecting change in soil quality. Am J Altern Agric 15:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Paul EP, Clark FE (1989) Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Academic Press, SandiegoGoogle Scholar
  80. Pancholy SK, Rice EL (1973) Soil enzymes in relation to old field succession; amylase, cellulose, invertase, dehydrogenase and urease. Soil Sci Soc Am J 37:47–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Patra DD, Brookes PC, Coleman K, Jenkinson DS (1990) Seasonal changes of soil microbial biomass in an arable and a grassland soil which have been under uniform management for many years. Soil Biol Biochem 22:739–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pazur JH (1965) Enzymes in the synthesis and hydrolysis of starch. In: Whistler R, Paschall EF (eds) Starch: chemistry and technology, vol 1, Fundamental aspects. Academic, New York, pp 133–175Google Scholar
  83. Petker AS, Rai PK (1992) Effect of fungicides on activity, secretion of some extra cellular enzymes and growth of Alternaria alternata. Indian J Appl Pure Biol 7:57–59Google Scholar
  84. Pettit NM, Smith ARJ, Freedman RB, Burns RG (1976) Soil urease: activity, stability and kinetic properties. Soil Biol Biochem 8:479–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pham GH, Kumari R, Singh A, Sachdeva M, Prasad R, Kaldorf M, Buscot F, Oelmuller R, Tatjana P, Weiss M, Hampp R, Varma A (2004) Axenic culture of Piriformospora indica. In: Plant Surface Microbiology (eds A Varma, L Abbott, D Werner and R Hampp). Springer-Verlag, Germany 2004:593–616Google Scholar
  86. Pitchel JR, Hayes JM (1990) Influence of fly ash on soil microbial activity and populations. J Environ Qual 19:593–597Google Scholar
  87. Reddy GB, Faza A (1989) Dehydrogenase activity in sludge amended soil. Soil Biol Biochem 21:327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Richmond PA (1991) Occurrence and functions of native cellulose. In: Haigler CH, Weimer PJ (eds) Biosynthesis and biodegradation of cellulose. Dekker, New York, pp 5–23Google Scholar
  89. Ross DJ (1968) Activities of enzymes hydrolysing sucrose and starch in some grassland soils. Trans 9th International Congress Soil-Science 3:299–308Google Scholar
  90. Ross DJ (1975) Studies on a climosequence of soils in tussock grasslands-5. Invertase and amylase activities of topsoils and their relationships with other properties. NZ J Sci 18:511–518Google Scholar
  91. Ross DJ (1976) Invertase and amylase activities in ryegrass and white clover plants and their relationships with activities in soils under pasture. Soil Biol Biochem 8:351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ross DJ, Roberts HS (1970) Enzyme activities and oxygen uptakes of soils under pasture in temperature and rainfall sequences. J Soil Sci 21:368–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rotini OT (1935) La trasformazione enzimatica dell’urea nel terreno. Ann Labor Ric Ferm Spallanrani 3:143–154Google Scholar
  94. Rubidge T (1977) The effect of moisture content and incubation temperature upon the potential cellulase activity of John Innes no. 1 soil (ISSN. 0020-6164). Int Biodeterior Bul 13:39–44Google Scholar
  95. Schmidt G, Laskowski M Sr (1961) Phosphate ester cleavage (Survey). In: Boyer PD, Lardy H, Myrback K (eds) The enzymes, 2nd edn. Academic, New York, pp 3–35Google Scholar
  96. Schussler A, Kluge M (2001) Geosiphon pyriforme, an endosymbiosis between fungus and cyanobacteria and its meaning as a model system for arbuscular mycorrhizal research. In: Esser K, Hock B (eds) The Mycota, 9. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 151–161Google Scholar
  97. Shawale JG, Sadana J (1981) Purification, characterization and properties of β-glucosidase enzyme from Sclerotium rolfsii. Arch Biochem Biophys 207:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sinsabaugh RL, Antibus RK, Linkins AE (1991) An enzymic approach to the analysis of microbial activity during plant litter decomposition. Agric Ecosyst Environ 34:43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sinsabaugh RL, Linkins AE (1989) Natural disturbance and the activity of Trichoderma viride cellulase complex. Soil Biol Biochem 21:835–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Skujins J (1978) Soil enzymology and fertility index – a fallacy? History of abiotic soil enzyme research. In: Burns RG (ed) Soil enzymes. Academic, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  101. Speir TW, Ross DJ (1978) Soil phosphatase and sulphatase. In: Burns RG (ed) Soil enzymes. Academic, London, UK, pp 197–250Google Scholar
  102. Staddon WJ, Duchesne LC, Trevors JT (1998) Impact of clear-cutting and prescribed burning on microbial diversity and community structure in a Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) clear-cut using BiOLOG gram-negative microplates. World J Microbiol Technol 14:119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Stevenson FJ (1986) Cycles of Soil-Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Micronutrients; Wiley InterScience Publ, John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. Subba Rao NS (1997) Soil microbiology. IBH Pub, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  105. Tabatabai MA (1977) Effect of trace elements on urease activity in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 9:9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tabatabai MA (1982) Soil enzyme. In: Page AL (ed) Methods of soil analysis, part 2. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 903–948Google Scholar
  107. Tabatabai MA (1994) Soil enzymes. In: Weaver RW, Angle JS, Bottomley PS (eds) Methods of soil analysis, part 2. Microbiological and biochemical properties, SSSA book series no. 5. Soil Science Society America, Madison, WI, pp 775–833Google Scholar
  108. Thoma JA, Spradlin JE, Dygert S (1971) Plant and animal amylases. In: Boyer PD (ed) The enzymes. International Society of Soil-Science, Netherlands 5:115–189Google Scholar
  109. Tisserant B, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S, Gollotte A (1993) In planta histochemical staining of fungal alkaline phosphatase activity for analysis of efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal infections. Mycol Res 97:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Trevors JT (1984) Dehydrogenase activity in soil: a comparison between the INT and TTC assay. Soil Biol Biochem 16:673–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vincent PG, Sisler HD (1968) Mechanisms of antifungal action of 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisopathalonitrile. Physiol Plant 21:1249–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Visscher PT, Vandenede FP, Schaub BEM, van Gemerden H (1992) Competition between anoxygenic phototropic bacteria and colorless sulfur bacteria in microbial mat. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 101:51–58Google Scholar
  113. Wenzel WW, Pollak MA, Riedler C, Zischka RR, Blum WEH (1995) Influence of site conditions and heavy metals on enzyme activities of forest topsoil. In: Huang PM, Berthelin J, Bollag JM, McGill WN, Page AL (eds) Environmental impact of soil component interactions-metals, other inorganics, and microbial activities. CRC, Baton Rouge, LA, pp 211–225Google Scholar
  114. White AR (1982) Visualization of cellulases and cellulose degradation. In: Brown RM Jr (ed) Cellulose and other natural polymer systems: biogenesis, structure, and degradation. Plenum, New York, pp 489–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wieland G, Neumann R, Backhaus H (2001) Variation of microbial communities in soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane in response to crop species, soil type, and crop development. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:5849–5854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wilke BM (1991) Effect of single and successive additions of cadmium, nickel and zinc on carbon dioxide evolution and dehydrogenase activity in a sandy Luvisol. Biol Fertil Soils 11:34–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Williams CH (1975) The chemical nature of sulphur compounds in soil. In: McLachlan KD (ed) Sulphur in Australasian agriculture. Sydney University Press, NSW, pp 21–30Google Scholar
  118. Wright AL, Reddy KR (2001) Phosphorus loading effects on extracellular enzyme activity in Everglades wetland soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:588–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yadav RS, Tarafdar JC (2001) Influence of organic and inorganic phosphorous supply on the maximum secretion of acid phosphatase by plants. Biol Fertil Soils 34:140–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yang Z, Liu S, Zheng D, Feng S (2006) Effects of cadium, zinc and lead on soil enzyme activities. J Environ Sci 18:1135–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zantua MI, Bremner JM (1977) Stability of urease in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 9:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amity Institute of Microbial TechnologyAmity University Uttar PradeshNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations