Advertisement

Annotating and Describing Pictures – Applications in E-Learning and Accessibility of Graphics

  • Ivan Kopeček
  • Radek Ošlejšek
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6179)

Abstract

The paper describes the ontology based approach to the annotation of graphical objects in relation to the accessibility of graphics. Some applications in e-leaning are also discussed. The problem concerning the optimality of graphical ontologies in relation with the annotation process is addressed and an optimality measure enabling algorithmic solution of this problem is proposed. Finally, an approach to generating picture description is presented.

Keywords

Accessibility of graphics picture annotation e-learning ontology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bulatov, V., Gardner, J.: Making graphics accessible. In: 3rd Annual Conference on Scalable Vector Graphics, Tokyo (September 2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fredj, Z.B., Duce, D.: Grassml: Accessible smart schematic diagrams for all. In: Theory and Practice of Computer Graphics, June 2003, pp. 49–55. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mathis, R.M.: Constraint scalable vector graphics, accessibility and the semantic web. In: SoutheastCon Proceedings, pp. 588–593. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schreiber, G., Dubbeldam, B., Wielemaker, J., Wielinga, B.: Ontology-based photo annotation. IEEE Intelligent Systems (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daunys, G., Lauruska, V.: Maps sonification system using digitiser for visually impaired children. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W.L., Karshmer, A.I. (eds.) ICCHP 2006. LNCS, vol. 4061, pp. 12–15. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Franklin, K.M., Roberts, J.C.: Pie chart sonification. In: Proceedings of Information Visualization (IV 2003), London, UK, July 2003, pp. 4–9. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kopeček, I., Ošlejšek, R.: Hybrid approach to sonification of color images. In: The 2008 Int. Conf. on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technologies, pp. 722–727. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matta, S., Rudolph, H., Kumar, D.K.: Auditory eyes: Representing visual information in sound and tactile cues. In: 13th European Signal Processing Conference, Antalya (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kopeček, I., Ošlejšek, R.: GATE to accessibility of computer graphics. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W.L., Karshmer, A.I. (eds.) ICCHP 2008. LNCS, vol. 5105, pp. 295–302. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kopeček, I., Ošlejšek, R.: The blind and creating computer graphics. In: Proceedings of the Second IASTED Int. Conf. on Computational Intelligence, pp. 343–348. ACTA Press, Zurich (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kamel, H.M., Landay, J.A.: Sketching images eyes-free: a grid-based dynamic drawing tool for the blind. In: Proceedings of the fifth international ACM conference on Assistive technologies, pp. 33–40. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lacy, L.W.: Owl: Representing Information Using the Web Ontology Language. Trafford Publishing (January 2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ošlejšek, R.: Annotation of pictures by means of graphical ontologies. In: Proc. Int. Conf. on Internet Computing, ICOMP 2009, pp. 296–300. CSREA Press (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Booch, G., Maksimchuk, R.A., Engel, M.W., Young, B.J., Conallen, J., Houston, K.A.: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications. Addison-Wesley Professional, Reading (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayeda, W.: Graph Theory. Wiley, New York (1972)zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan Kopeček
    • 1
  • Radek Ošlejšek
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of InformaticsMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations