Extended Rate-Hardness: A Measure for Perceived Hardness
This paper presents a measure for assessing the perceived hardness of a haptic surface based on associated physical variables. This metric, named extended rate-hardness (ERH), is extended from rate-hardness originally proposed by Lawrence et al. in order to cover a larger class of rendering algorithms and applications. We also performed a psychophysical evaluation using absolute magnitude estimation to quantify the extent to which the ERH can account for perceived hardness. The findings have implications to developing haptic interfaces and rendering algorithms with improved perceptual hardness.
KeywordsHardness perception stiffness perception rate-hardness extended rate-hardness
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Colgate, J., Brown, J.: Factors affecting the z-width of a haptic display. In: Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3205–3210 (1994)Google Scholar
- 4.Gescheider, G.: Psychophysics: The Fundamentals. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah (1997)Google Scholar
- 9.LaMotte, R.: Softness discrimination with a tool. Journal of Neurophysiology 83(4), 1777–1786 (2000)Google Scholar
- 14.Salisbury, K., Brock, D., Massie, T., Swarup, N., Zilles, C.: Haptic rendering: Programming touch interaction with virtual objects. In: Proc. of the ACM Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 123–130 (1995)Google Scholar
- 15.Srinivasan, M., LaMotte, R.: Tactual discrimination of softness. Journal of Neurophysiology 73(1), 88–101 (1995)Google Scholar