On Actors and the REST

  • Janne Kuuskeri
  • Tuomas Turto
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6189)


The prevalence of RESTful services requires that we pay closer attention to how the principles that underlay REST are realized in actual services being implemented. This is especially crucial as REST is being applied to problem domains that require complex operations such as transactions. In this paper we investigate the relationship between RESTful web services and the actor model of computation. We suggest that by formulating RESTful services as a network of actors we can achieve deeper understanding what it means for a service to be RESTful.


Actor Model Architectural Style Actor Machine Replacement Behavior External Interface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Agha, G., Thati, P., Ziaei, R.: Actors: A Model For Reasong About Open Distributed Systems. Formal Methods for Distributed Processing - An Object Oriented Approach, ch. 8. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agha, G., Varela, C.A.: Worldwide computing middleware. In: Singh, M. (ed.) Practical Handbook on Internet Computing. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2004) (invited book chapter)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agha, G.A.: Actors: A model of concurrent computation in distributed systems. Technical Report 844, MIT Artifical Intelligence Laboratory (June 1985)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Armstrong, J.: Programming Erlang: Software for a Concurrent World. The Pragmatic Bookshelf (June 2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Böhm, A., Kanne, C.-C.: Processes Are Data: A Programming Model for Distributed Applications. In: Vossen, G., Long, D.D.E., Yu, J.X. (eds.) WISE 2009. LNCS, vol. 5802, pp. 53–56. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang, P.H., Agha, G.: Supporting reconfigurable object distribution for customized web applications. In: The 22nd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Erenkrantz, J.R., Gorlick, M., Suryanarayana, G., Taylor, R.N.: From representations to computations: the evolution of web architectures. In: ESEC-FSE ’07: Proceedings of the the 6th Joint Meeting of the European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on The foundations of Software Engineering, pp. 255–264. ACM, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T.: Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.1. RFC 2616 (Draft Standard) (June 1999), updated by RFC 2817
  9. 9.
    Fielding, R.T.: Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Irvine (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hewitt, C.: Viewing control structures as patterns of passing messages. A.I. Memo 410, MIT Artifical Intelligence Laboratory (December 1976)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hewitt, C., Bishop, P., Steiger, R.: A universal modular actor formalism for artificial intelligence. In: IJCAI’73: Proceedings of the 3rd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 235–245. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc, San Francisco (1973)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laitkorpi, M., Koskinen, J., Systa, T.: A uml-based approach for abstracting application interfaces to rest-like services. In: WCRE ’06: Proceedings of the 13th Working Conference on Reverse Engineering, pp. 134–146. IEEE Computer Society Press, Washington (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Laitkorpi, M., Selonen, P., Systa, T.: Towards a model-driven process for designing restful web services. In: ICWS ’09: Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Web Services, pp. 173–180. IEEE Computer Society Press, Washington (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pautasso, C., Zimmermann, O., Leymann, F.: Restful web services vs. “big” web services: making the right architectural decision. In: WWW ’08: Proceeding of the 17th International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 805–814. ACM, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Razavi, A., Marinos, A., Moschoyiannis, S., Krause, P.: RESTful Transactions Supported by the Isolation Theorems. In: Gaedke, M., Grissnikalus, M., Diaz, O. (eds.) ICWE 2009. LNCS, vol. 5648, pp. 394–409. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Richardson, L., Ruby, S.: RESTful Web Services. O’Reilly, Sebastopol (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Theriault, D.G.: Issues in the design and implementation of act2. Technical Report 728, MIT Artifical Intelligence Laboratory (June 1983)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Varela, C.: Worldwide Computing with Universal Actors: Linguistic Abstractions for Naming, Migration, and Coordination. Ph.D. thesis, U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Varela, C.A., Agha, G.: Programming dynamically reconfigurable open systems with SALSA. In: ACM SIG-PLAN Notices. OOPSLA’2001 Intriguing Technology Track Proceedings, vol. 36(12), pp. 20–34 (December 2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Weerawarana, S., Curbera, F., Leymann, F., Storey, T., Ferguson, D.F.: Web Services Platform Architecture: SOAP, WSDL, WS-Policy, WS-Addressing, WS-BPEL, WS-Reliable Messaging and More. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janne Kuuskeri
    • 1
  • Tuomas Turto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Software SystemsTampere University of Technology, PL 553TampereFinland

Personalised recommendations