Advertisement

Comparative Study of Risk Assessment Approaches Based on Different Methods for Deriving DNEL and PNEC of Chemical Mixtures

  • Jongwoon Kim
  • Sanghun Kim
  • Gabriele E. Schaumann
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 135)

Abstract

Most living organisms are actually exposed to chemical mixtures rather than individual substances. But current chemical risk assessment frequently focuses on the single chemical substances. The European Union presented some methods in the draft technical guidance notes for deriving DNEL (Derived No Effect Level) and PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) for risk assessment of mixtures. This case study shows that the differences of DNELs and PNECs of mixtures (2 coating materials) based on two methods (KCC and CR methods) and explains why such differences are generated. The differences of DNELs and PNECs of the mixtures based on the two methods were estimated by 1.21 and 2.31 times respectively. Through the theoretical analysis on influence factors affecting DNEL and PNEC, it could be recognized that the difference between two methods can significantly increase in proportion to the number of substances having similar hazard and weight fraction.

Keywords

Weight Fraction Mixture Product Zinc Phosphate Exposure Route Assessment Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Altenburger, R., Greco, R.W.: Extrapolation concepts for dealing with multiple contamination in environmental risk assessment. Integrated Environment Assessment and Management  5(1), 62–68 (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yang, R.S.H., Thomas, R.S., Gustafson, D.L., et al.: Approaches to developing alternative and predictive toxicology based on PBPK/PD and QSAR modeling. Environ Health Perspect 106(suppl.), 1385–1393 (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heather, L., Martin, C.S., Lindsay, J.L., et al.: Measurement and modelling of the toxicity of binary mixtures in the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans - A test of independent action. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(1), 97–104 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Regulations (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemical Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC, http://ecb.jrc.it/legislation/2006R1907EC.pdf (accessed June 19, 2009)
  5. 5.
    Gade, A.L., Øvrebø, S., Hylland, K.: Testing REACH draft technical guidance notes for conducting chemical safety assessments -The experience of a downstream user of a preparation. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 51(2), 168–180 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    European Chemical Industry Council (co-ordinator), Considerations on Safety Data Sheets and Chemical Safety Assessments of Preparations - Final report. Service Contract Nos. 22551-2004-12 F1SC ISP BE and 22552-2004-12 F1SC ISP BE (2005b)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    European Chemical Agency, Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment chapter R.8: Characterisation of dose (concentration)-response for human health. Guidance for the implementation of REACH, http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_r8_en.pdf?vers=20_08_08 (Accessed June 19, 2009)
  8. 8.
    European Chemical Agency, Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment chapter R.10: Characterisation of dose (concentration)-response for environment. Guidance for the implementation of REACH, http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_r10_en.pdf?vers=20_08_08 (Accessed June 19, 2009)
  9. 9.
    Jonker, M.J., Svendsen, C., Bedaux, J.M., et al.: Significance testing of synergistic/antagonistic, dose level-response analysis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(10), 2701–2713 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahmad, M.: Potentiation/antagonism of deltamethrin and cypermethrins with organophosphate insecticides in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 80(1), 31–42 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Silva, E., Rajapakse, N., Kortenkamp, A.: Something from “nothing” - Eight weak estrogenic chemicals combined at concentrations below NOECs produce significant mixture effects. Environ Sci. Technol. 36, 1751–1756 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    TEAL & MACKRILL (2007) Safety Data Sheet - EPIDOX 2 zinc phosphate primer (11/09/2007), http://www.coo-var.co.uk/pdfs/04410845.pdf (accessed June 19, 2009)
  13. 13.
    COO-VAR (2005) Safety Data Sheet - zinc phosphate primer (26/08/2005), http://www.coo-var.co.uk/pdfs/04410594.pdf (accessed June 19, 2009)
  14. 14.
    US Environmental Protection Agency, High Production Volume chemical hazard data availability study (2007), http://www.epa.gov/HPV/pubs/general/hazchem.htm (accessed June 21, 2009)
  15. 15.
    Cedergreen, N., Christensen, A.M., Kamper, A., et al.: A review of independent action compared to concentration addition as reference models for mixtures of compounds with different molecular target sites. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27(7), 1621–1632 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    OECD, OECD Integrated High Production Volume Database: OECD Agreed Conclusions and Recommendations - Xylene (2003), http://cs3-hq.oecd.org/scripts/hpv/Status/DownloadFile.ASP?CASNUM=1330207&StatusCode=SIARC&DataNo=1 (accessed June 21, 2009)
  17. 17.
    UNEP, OECD Initial Assessment Report for High Production Volume Chemicals including Screening Information DataSet (SIDS) - N-Butyl alcohol (2001), http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/OECDSIDS/71363.pdf (accessed June 21, 2009)
  18. 18.
    UNEP, OECD Initial Assessment Report for High Production Volume Chemicals including Screening Information DataSet (SIDS) - Iso-butanol (2004), http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/OECDSIDS/78831.pdf (accessed June 21, 2009)
  19. 19.
    European Chemical Bureau, European Union risk assessment report – Toluene. Office for official publications of the European Communities (2003), http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=CASNO&ENTREE=108-88-3 (accessed June 21, 2009)
  20. 20.
    OECD, OECD Integrated High Production Volume Database: OECD Agreed Conclusions and Recommendations - Toluene (2001), http://cs3-hq.oecd.org/scripts/hpv/Index2.asp?CASNUM=108883 (accessed June 21, 2009)
  21. 21.
    European Chemical Bureau, European Union risk assessment report - Zinc metal. Office for official publications of the European Communities (2008), http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/DOCUMENTS/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/REPORT/zincmetalreport072.pdf (accessed June 21, 2009)
  22. 22.
    European Chemical Bureau, IUCLID Dataset Solvent naptha (petroleum), heavy arom (2000), http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=CASNO&ENTREE=108-88-3%20 (accessed June 21, 2009)
  23. 23.
    European Chemical Bureau IUCLID Dataset 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (2000), http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=CASNO&ENTREE=108-88-3%20 (accessed June 21, 2009)
  24. 24.
    European Chemical Bureau, IUCLID Dataset Solvent naptha (petroleum), medium aliph (Mesitylene) (2000), http://ecb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esis/index.php?GENRE=CASNO&ENTREE=108-88-3%20 (accessed June 21, 2009)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jongwoon Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sanghun Kim
    • 1
  • Gabriele E. Schaumann
    • 2
  1. 1.KIST Europe Forschungsgesellschaft mbH.Knowledge Research GroupSaarbrückenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Organic and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental SciencesUniversity of Koblenz-LandauLandauGermany

Personalised recommendations