Microscopic Origins of Superconductivity
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By measuring the flux quantum, it was established that the carriers are electron pairs in a superconductor. This is a key feature of all electron superconductivity phenomena so far observed. Note, however, that the discussion of the model based on Cooper pairs in Chap. 5 seriously distorts the actual chronology of these discoveries. London did indeed realise as early as 1950 that superconductivity would have to be treated as a macroscopic quantum effect, and envisaged flux quantisation, but he assumed that the superconducting carriers had charge −e. The point is that the experiment testing the flux quantisation hypothesis was not carried out until 1961, by which time the existence of Cooper pairs was well accepted.