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Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

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Medicinal Organometallic Chemistry

Part of the book series: Topics in Organometallic Chemistry ((TOPORGAN,volume 32))

Abstract

Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air–CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

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Abbreviations

AEGL3:

Acute exposure guideline level 3 – life-threatening health effects or death

AMP:

Adenosine monophosphate

ANG:

Angiotensin

ASMC:

Airway smooth muscle cells

BAY:

41-2272 5-cyclopropyl-2[1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-b] pyridine-3-yl] pyrimidin-4-ylamine

cGC:

Guanylyl cyclase

cGMP:

5′-cyclic guanylyl phosphate

CORM-1:

[Mn2(CO)10]

CORM-2:

[RuCl2(CO)3]2

CORM-3:

[RuCl(glycinate)(CO)3]

CORM-A1:

Na[H3BCO2H]

CO-RMs:

CO-releasing molecules

COX-2:

Cyclooxygenase-2

DC:

Dendritic cell

DMSO:

Dimethylsulfoxide

EC:

Endothelial cells

ERK1/2:

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2

ICAM-1:

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1

IL:

Interleukin

iNOS:

Inducible NO synthase

LPS:

Lipopolysaccharide

Mb:

Myoglobin

MbCO:

Carboxymyoglobin

MMP:

Matrix metalloproteinase

mRNA:

messenger Ribonucleic acid

mTALH:

Medullary thick ascending limb

NAD(P)H:

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NANC:

Non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic

NF-κB:

Eukaryotic transcription factor

Nox4:

Gene that encodes the enzyme NADPH oxidase 4

PC-12:

A cancer cell line

PMN:

Human neutrophils

PPAR-gamma:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma

PTEN:

Phosphatase and tensin homolog

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

sFlt-1:

Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1

STZ:

Streptozotocin

THF:

Tetrahydrofuran

TLR:

Toll-like receptors

TNF-α:

Tumour necrosis factor-alpha

VEGFR-2:

Vascular endothelial growth factor-2

YC-1:

1-benzyl-3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)indazole

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Acknowledgments

I wish to thank Dr R. Motterlini for reading the manuscript and providing valuable modifications. I also wish to thank Hemocorm (now Alfama) for financial support and declare a financial interest in the company.

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Mann, B.E. (2010). Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule. In: Jaouen, G., Metzler-Nolte, N. (eds) Medicinal Organometallic Chemistry. Topics in Organometallic Chemistry, vol 32. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-13185-1_10

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