Challenges of Implementing ESD in the Education Sector; Experiences in Norway
This article presents and reflects on Norwegian experiences over a period of about 15 years with implementing the Norwegian national strategy for education for sustainable development (ESD) in the education system. We extract lessons about integration of ESD into education systems. After an introduction to central ideas of sustainable development and ESD, the article discusses the need for appropriate strategies and instruments. Key factors are collaboration to allow pupils and schools to actively contribute to a positive development locally and globally, interdisciplinary approaches to complex sustainability issues, and appropriate use of the ICT and other media. ESD programmes and activities should support school development and build the capacity of schools and teachers for integration of ESD.
Keywordseducation for sustainable development collaboration school development participation media
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