Dialysis and renal transplantation are lifesaving modalities of renal replacement therapies(RRT) in children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease. Hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are two modes of dialysis therapy. Peritoneal dialysis is cheaper and the hemodynamic tolerance is better with PD than with HD. PD can be a home-based therapy, allowing more liberal diet to the child. Anticoagulation is not required and vascular access is not an issue with PD (which is a major concern in smaller children). PD requires less expertise and equipments. The choice of modality of RRT is based on a combination of medical and psycho-socio-economic factors. The dialysis therapy is generally considered as a bridge toward renal transplantation in children. This chapter provides an overview of the fundamentals of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.
KeywordsPeritoneal Dialysis Peritoneal Dialysis Patient Exit Site Residual Renal Function Peritoneal Membrane
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