Cryoprotective Dehydration: Clues from an Insect
Arthropods have evolved a number of different adaptations to survive extreme environmental temperatures including, in some regions, over-wintering temperatures well below 0°C. One of the less common adaptations to surviving cold is that of cryoprotective dehydration, where the animal becomes almost anhydrobiotic with the loss of virtually all osmotically active water. In this chapter, we describe integrated studies utilising physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology to understand this phenomenon in the Arctic springtail (Megaphorura arctica) (formerly Onychiurus arcticus). These studies concentrate on the action of trehalose as a cryoprotectant, the production of antioxidants to reduce cell damage and changes in membrane composition.
KeywordsSugar Glycerol Glutathione Superoxide Respiration
This paper was produced within the BAS GSAC BIOREACH/BIOFLAME core programmes and also contributes to the SCAR EBA programme. JP was sponsored by the EU Sleeping Beauty Consortium: Specific Targeted Research Project, Contract no 012674 (NEST). JP and GG-L are also funded by the MSTD grant 143034, awarded by the Republic of Serbia. The authors would like to thank NERC for access to the NERC Arctic Research Station (Harland Huset) at Ny-Ålesund and Nick Cox, the Arctic base commander. We would also like to thank Pete Convey for critical reading of the manuscript and Barbara Worland and Guy Hillyard for their help with animal collection in the 2007 and 2008 field seasons respectively and Zeljko Popovic for his help with the Q-PCR.
- Crowe JH, Crowe LM (1984) Effects of dehydration on membranes and membrane stabilization at low water activities. In: Chapman D (ed) Biological Membranes 5. Academic Press, London, pp 57–103Google Scholar
- Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (2007) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Hansen BH, Romma S, Garmo OA, Olsvik PA, Andersen RA (2006) Antioxidative stress proteins and their gene expression in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from three rivers with different heavy metal levels. Comp Biochem Physiol C 143:263–274Google Scholar
- Hermes-Lima M, Zenteno-Savin T (2002) Animal response to drastic changes in oxygen availability and physiological oxidative stress. Comp Biochem Physiol C 133:537–556Google Scholar
- Lundheim R, Zachariassen KE (1993) Water balance in over-wintering beetles in relation to strategies for cold tolerance. J Comp Biochem Physiol 163:1–4Google Scholar
- Ohno S (1970) Evolution by gene duplication. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Oku K, Watanabe H, Kubota FS, Kurimoto M, Tsujisaka Y, Komori M, Inoue Y, Sakurai M (2003) NMR and quantum chemical study on the OHċ ċ ċπ and CHċ ċ ċO Interactions between Trehalose and Unsaturated Fatty Acids: Implication for the Mechanism of Antioxidant Function of Trehalose. J Am Chem Soc 125:12739–12748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ring RA, Danks HV (1994) Desiccation and cryoprotection – overlapping adaptations. Cryoletters 15:181–190Google Scholar
- Steele JE (1999) Activation of fat body in Periplaneta americana (Blattoptera: Blattidae) by hypertrehalosemic hormones (HTH): new insights into the mechanism of cell signalling. Eur J Entomol 96:317–322Google Scholar
- Worland MR (1996) The relationship between water content and cold tolerance in the arctic collembolan Onychiurus arcticus (Collembola: Onychiuridae). Eur J Entomol 93:341–348Google Scholar
- Zachariassen KE (1985) Physiology of cold tolerance in insects. Physiol Rev 4:799–832Google Scholar