Abundant literature on disasters has shown that a natural hazard does not always result in a disaster. It only does so when the hazard hits in a context of social vulnerability (Oliver-Smith and Hoffman, 2002). The case of hurricane Katrina provides an example particularly showing this interaction between natural hazards and social vulnerabilities.
- Social Vulnerability
- Baton Rouge
- Social Unrest
- Evacuation Order
- Kaiser Family Foundation
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Funding for this fieldwork was provided by the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS).
Louisiana State University.
The I-10 is the principal exit route out of New Orleans and connects the city to Baton Rouge, and further to Texas.
National Conference on Disaster Planning for the Carless Society, held at the University of New Orleans on 7–8 February 2007.
A suburb of New Orleans, where the international airport is located.
Multiple answers were allowed.
Interview with the author, Baton Rouge, March 2007.
Interview with the author, New Orleans, February 2007.
Interestingly, after the 1999 floods in Venezuela, President Chavez suggested to call the victims dignificados, instead of damnificados.
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Curiel, T.J. (2006): Murder or mercy? Hurricane Katrina and the need for disaster training. New England Journal of Medicine 355(20), 2067–2069.
Dobbs, L. (2005): Lou Dobbs Tonight: Cable News Network. Broadcast on 7 September.
Dyson, M.E. (2006): Come Hell Or High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster. Basic Civitas, Cambridge, MA.
Fussell, E. (2006): Leaving New Orleans: Social Stratification, Networks, and Hurricane Evacuation. Social Sciences Research Council 2006. Accessed 14 May, 2007. Available from http://understandingkatrina.ssrc.org/Fussell
Gladwin, H., and W.G. Peacock. (1997): Warning and evacuation: A night for hard houses. In: Peacock, W.G., Gladwin, H., and Morrow, B.H. (ed.), Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, Gender and the Sociology of Disaster. Routledge, London.
Gordon, E. (2005): Former New Orleans Mayor Marc Morial. National Public Radio. Broadcast on 1 September.
Grier, P. (2005): The great Katrina migration. Christian Science Monitor, 12 September.
Hopkins, D.J. (2007a): Flooded communities: The Post-Katrina migration negative impact on attitudes towards the poor and African Americans. Unpublished dissertation, Department of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Hopkins, D.J. (2007b): Politicized change: How local reactions to the Post-Katrina migrants were shaped by the media. Unpublished paper, Center for the Study of American Politics, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Kaufman, S. (2006): The criminalization of New Orleanians in Katrina’s wake. Social Sciences Research Council 2006. Accessed 12 October, 2007. Available from http://understandingkatrina.ssrc.org/Kaufman
Kiefer, J.J., and R.S. Montjoy. (2006): Incrementalism before the storm: Network performance for the evacuation of New Orleans. Public Administration Review 66(s1), 122–130.
Laska, S., and B. Hearn Morrow. (2006): Social vulnerabilities and hurricane Katrina: An unnatural disaster in New Orleans. Marine Technology Society Journal 40(3), 7–17.
Masquelier, A. (2006): Why Katrina’s victims aren’t refugees: Musings on a “dirty” word. American Anthropologist 108(4), 735–743.
Nunberg, G. (2005): When words break down. Accessed 14 May, 2008. Available from http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/∼nunberg/looting.html
Oliver-Smith, A., and S.M. Hoffman. (2002): Introduction: Why anthropologists should study disasters. In: Oliver-Smith, A., and Hoffman, S.M. (ed.), Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster. The School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM.
Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. (2006): A failure of initiative. The Final Report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. House of Representatives, Washington, DC.
Shughart, W.F., II. (2006): Katrinanomics: The politics and economics of disaster relief. Public Choice 127(1–2), 31–53.
Sommers, S.R., E.P. Apfelbaum, K.N. Dukes, N. Toosi, and E.F. Wang. (2006): Race and media coverage of hurricane Katrina: Analysis, implications, and future research questions. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 6(1), 39–55.
Survey of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees. (2005): The Washington Post, Kaiser Family Foundation, Harvard University, Cambridge.
Tierney, K., C. Bevc, and E. Kuligowski. (2006): Metaphors MATTER: Disaster myths, media frames, and their consequences in hurricane Katrina. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 604(1), 57–81.
van Heerden, I., and M. Bryan. (2006): The Storm. What Went Wrong and Why During Hurricane Katrina – The Inside Story from One Louisiana Scientist. Viking, New York, NY.
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This field work was made possible thanks to a travel grant of the National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS) in Belgium. Furthermore, I would like to acknowledge the support of Thomas Langston (Political Science Department, Tulane University), John Kiefer, and Shirley Laska (Political Science Department and CHART, University of New Orleans), as well as Marc Levitan and Ezra Boyd (Hurricane Center, Louisiana State University) for the help and facilities provided during my stay.
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Gemenne, F. (2010). What’s in a Name: Social Vulnerabilities and the Refugee Controversy in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina. In: Afifi, T., Jäger, J. (eds) Environment, Forced Migration and Social Vulnerability. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12416-7_3
Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
Print ISBN: 978-3-642-12415-0
Online ISBN: 978-3-642-12416-7