Comparing Three Computational Models of Affect
In aiming for behavioral fidelity, artificial intelligence cannot and no longer ignores the formalization of human affect. Affect modeling plays a vital role in faithfully simulating human emotion and in emotionally-evocative technology that aims at being real. This paper offers a short expose about three models concerning the generation and regulation of affect: CoMERG, EMA and I-PEFiCADM, which each in their own right are successfully applied in the agent and robot domain. We argue that the three models partly overlap and where distinct, they complement one another. We provide an analysis of the theoretical concepts, and provide a blueprint of an integration, which should result in a more precise representation of affect simulation in virtual humans.
KeywordsAffect modeling Cognitive modeling Virtual agents
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Bosse, T., Pontier, M.A., Treur, J.: A Dynamical System Modelling Approach to Gross Model of Emotion Regulation. In: Lewis, R.L., Polk, T.A., Laird, J.E. (eds.) Proc. of the 8th Int. Cf. on Cognitive Modeling, ICCM 2007, pp. 187–192 (2007)Google Scholar
- 3.Breazeal, C.: Emotion and sociable humanoid robots. In: Hudlika, E. (ed.) International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, vol. 59, pp. 119–155 (2003)Google Scholar
- 4.Frijda, N.H.: The Emotions. Cambridge University, New York (1986)Google Scholar
- 6.Hoorn, J.F., Pontier, M.A., Siddiqui, G.F.: When the user is instrumental to robot goals. First try: Agent uses agent. In: Proceedings of Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology 2008 (WI-IAT 2008), vol. 2, pp. 296–301 (2008)Google Scholar
- 7.Konijn, E.A., and Hoorn, J.F.: Some like it bad. Testing a model for perceiving and experiencing fictional characters. Media Psychology, Vol. 7(2), pp. 107-144 (2005) Google Scholar
- 8.Lazarus, R.S.: Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University (1991) Google Scholar
- 9.Mao, W., and Gratch, J.: Evaluating a computational model of social causality and responsibility. 5th Int. Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Hakodate, Japan (2006) Google Scholar
- 10.Marsella, S., and Gratch, J.: EMA: A Model of Emotional Dynamics. Cognitive Systems Research, Vol. 10(1), pp. 70-90 (2009) Google Scholar
- 11.Pontier, M.A., and Siddiqui, G.F.: Silicon Coppélia: Integrating Three Affect-Related Models for Establishing Richer Agent Interaction. Proc. of Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology 2009 (WI-IAT ‘09), Vol. 2, pp.279-284 (2009) Google Scholar
- 12.Smith, C.A., and Lazarus, R.S.: Emotion and Adaptation. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of Personality: theory & research, pp. 609-637. NY: Guilford Press (1990)Google Scholar