Comparing Three Computational Models of Affect

  • Tibor Bosse
  • Jonathan Gratch
  • Johan F. Hoorn
  • Matthijs Portier
  • Ghazanfar F. Siddiqui
Part of the Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing book series (AINSC, volume 70)


In aiming for behavioral fidelity, artificial intelligence cannot and no longer ignores the formalization of human affect. Affect modeling plays a vital role in faithfully simulating human emotion and in emotionally-evocative technology that aims at being real. This paper offers a short expose about three models concerning the generation and regulation of affect: CoMERG, EMA and I-PEFiCADM, which each in their own right are successfully applied in the agent and robot domain. We argue that the three models partly overlap and where distinct, they complement one another. We provide an analysis of the theoretical concepts, and provide a blueprint of an integration, which should result in a more precise representation of affect simulation in virtual humans.


Affect modeling Cognitive modeling Virtual agents 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bosse, T., Pontier, M.A., Siddiqui, G.F., Treur, J.: Incorporating Emotion Regulation into Virtual Stories. In: Pelachaud, C., Martin, J.-C., André, E., Chollet, G., Karpouzis, K., Pelé, D. (eds.) IVA 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4722, pp. 339–347. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bosse, T., Pontier, M.A., Treur, J.: A Dynamical System Modelling Approach to Gross Model of Emotion Regulation. In: Lewis, R.L., Polk, T.A., Laird, J.E. (eds.) Proc. of the 8th Int. Cf. on Cognitive Modeling, ICCM 2007, pp. 187–192 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Breazeal, C.: Emotion and sociable humanoid robots. In: Hudlika, E. (ed.) International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, vol. 59, pp. 119–155 (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frijda, N.H.: The Emotions. Cambridge University, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gross, J.J.: Emotion Regulation in Adulthood: Timing is Everything. Current directions in psychological science 10(6), 214–219 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hoorn, J.F., Pontier, M.A., Siddiqui, G.F.: When the user is instrumental to robot goals. First try: Agent uses agent. In: Proceedings of Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology 2008 (WI-IAT 2008), vol. 2, pp. 296–301 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Konijn, E.A., and Hoorn, J.F.: Some like it bad. Testing a model for perceiving and experiencing fictional characters. Media Psychology, Vol. 7(2), pp. 107-144 (2005) Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lazarus, R.S.: Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University (1991) Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mao, W., and Gratch, J.: Evaluating a computational model of social causality and responsibility. 5th Int. Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Hakodate, Japan (2006) Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marsella, S., and Gratch, J.: EMA: A Model of Emotional Dynamics. Cognitive Systems Research, Vol. 10(1), pp. 70-90 (2009) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pontier, M.A., and Siddiqui, G.F.: Silicon Coppélia: Integrating Three Affect-Related Models for Establishing Richer Agent Interaction. Proc. of Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology 2009 (WI-IAT ‘09), Vol. 2, pp.279-284 (2009) Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith, C.A., and Lazarus, R.S.: Emotion and Adaptation. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of Personality: theory & research, pp. 609-637. NY: Guilford Press (1990)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tibor Bosse
    • 1
  • Jonathan Gratch
    • 3
  • Johan F. Hoorn
    • 2
  • Matthijs Portier
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ghazanfar F. Siddiqui
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Artificial IntelligenceVU UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Center for Advanced Media Research AmsterdamVU UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute for Creative TechnologiesUniversity of Southern California 
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceQuaid-i-Azam University IslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations