Skip to main content

Botanical Antioxidants for Skin Protection: An Overview

  • 2864 Accesses

Abstract

The skin, situated at the interface between the body and its environment, is constantly exposed to numerous environmental, physical, and chemical agents. Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes dysfunction of signaling pathways, disturbances in the apoptotic machinery, DNA damage, mutations in critical target genes, and immunosuppression. Collective effects of these lead to photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel strategies to reduce the adverse biological effects of UV radiation on the skin. The concept of photoprotection is gaining considerable attention as a practical approach to reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and photoaging. In recent years, the use of botanical antioxidants, present in the common diet and beverages consumed by the humans, has gained considerable attention as photoprotective agents. Animal model and cell culture studies have elucidated that botanical antioxidants act by several mechanisms to delay photocarcinogenesis and prevent photoaging. This chapter presents an overview of some of the selected botanical antioxidants for skin protection.Helfaer Professor of Cancer Research, Director and Vice Chair for Research(608) 263–3927(608) 263–5223

Keywords

  • Topical Application
  • HaCaT Cell
  • Pomegranate Juice
  • EGCG Treatment
  • Minimal Erythema Dose

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-12264-4_5
  • Chapter length: 13 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-12264-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 5.1

References

  1. Afaq, F., Adhami, V.M., Mukhtar, H.: Photochemoprevention of ultraviolet B signaling and photocarcinogenesis. Mutat. Res. 571, 153–173 (2005)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Bachelor, M.A., Bowden, G.T.: UVA-mediated activation of signaling pathways involved in skin tumor promotion and progression. Semin. Cancer Biol. 14, 131–138 (2004)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Adhami, V.M., Syed, D.N., Khan, N., Afaq, F.: Phy­tochemicals for prevention of solar ultraviolet radiation-induced damages. Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 489–500 (2008)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Afaq, F., Mukhtar, H.: Botanical antioxidants in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Exp. Dermatol. 15, 678–684 (2006)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Bowden, G.T.: Prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer by targeting ultraviolet-B-light signalling. Nat. Rev. Cancer 4, 23–35 (2004)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Lu, Y.P., Lou, Y.R., Yen, P., Mitchell, D., Huang, M.T., Conney, A.H.: Time course for early adaptive responses to ultraviolet B light in the epidermis of SKH-1 mice. Cancer Res. 59, 4591–4602 (1999)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. McLoone, P., Simics, E., Barton, A., Norval, M., Gibbs, N.K.: An action spectrum for the production of cis-urocanic acid in human skin in vivo. J. Invest. Dermatol. 124, 1071–1074 (2005)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin 2009 Jun 25

    Google Scholar 

  9. Kligman, L.H., Kligman, A.M.: The nature of photoageing: its prevention and repair. Photodermatology 3, 215–227 (1986)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Rabe, J.H., Mamelak, A.J., McElgunn, P.J., Morison, W.L., Sauder, D.N.: Photoaging: mechanisms and repair. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 55, 1–19 (2006)

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Uitto, J.: The role of elastin and collagen in cutaneous aging: intrinsic aging versus photoexposure. J. Drugs Dermatol. 7(2 Suppl), s12–s16 (2008)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Sander, C.S., Chang, H., Salzmann, S., Muller, C.S., Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage, S., Elsner, P., Thiele, J.J.: Photoaging is associated with protein oxidation in human skin in vivo. J. Invest. Dermatol. 118, 618–625 (2002)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Seo, J.Y., Lee, S.H., Youn, C.S., Choi, H.R., Rhie, G.E., Cho, K.H., Kim, K.H., Park, K.C., Eun, H.C., Chung, J.H.: Ultraviolet radiation increases tropoelastin mRNA expression in the epidermis of human skin in vivo. J. Invest. Dermatol. 116, 915–919 (2001)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Afaq, F., Zaid, M.A., Khan, N., Dreher, M., Mukhtar, H.: Protective effect of pomegranate-derived products on UVB-mediated damage in human reconstituted skin. Exp. Dermatol. 18, 553–561 (2009)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Chung, J.H., Seo, J.Y., Choi, H.R., Lee, M.K., Youn, C.S., Rhie, G., Cho, K.H., Kim, K.H., Park, K.C., Eun, H.C.: Modulation of skin collagen metabolism in aged and photoaged human skin in vivo. J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 1218–1224 (2001)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Chen, Z., Shin, M.H., Moon, Y.J., Lee, S.R., Kim, Y.K., Seo, J.E., Kim, J.E., Kim, K.H., Chung, J.H.: Modulation of elastin exon 26A mRNA and protein expression in human skin in vivo. Exp. Dermatol. 18, 378–386 (2009)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Krutmann, J., Gilchrest, B.A.: Photoaging of skin. In: Gilchrest, B.A., Krutmann, J. (eds.) Skin Aging, pp. 33–44. Springer, New York (2006)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Surh, Y.J.: Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals. Nat. Rev. Cancer 3, 768–780 (2003)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Katiyar, S.K., Afaq, F., Azizuddin, K., Mukhtar, H.: Inhibition of UVB-induced oxidative stress-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes by green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 176, 110–117 (2002)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Afaq, F., Adhami, V.M., Ahmad, N., Mukhtar, H.: Inhibition of ultraviolet B-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappaB in normal human epidermal keratinocytes by green tea constituent(−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Oncogene 22, 1035–1044 (2003)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Xia, J., Song, X., Bi, Z., Chu, W., Wan, Y.: UV-induced NF-kappaB activation and expression of IL-6 is attenuated by (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in cultured human keratinocytes in vitro. Int. J. Mol. Med. 16, 943–950 (2005)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Afaq, F., Ahmad, N., Mukhtar, H.: Suppression of UVB-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kappa B by green tea polyphenol in SKH-1 hairless mice. Oncogene 22, 9254–9264 (2003)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Katiyar, S.K., Mukhtar, H.: Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment to mouse skin prevents UVB-induced infiltration of leukocytes, depletion of antigen-presenting cells, and oxidative stress. J. Leukoc. Biol. 69, 719–726 (2001)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Sevin, A., Oztaş, P., Senen, D., Han, U., Karaman, C., Tarimci, N., Kartal, M., Erdoğan, B.: Effects of polyphenols on skin damage due to ultraviolet A rays: an experimental study on rats. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 21, 650–656 (2007)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Jeon, H.Y., Kim, J.K., Kim, W.G., Lee, S.J.: Effects of oral epigallocatechin gallate supplementation on the minimal erythema dose and UV-induced skin damage. Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 22, 137–141 (2009)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Wang, Z.Y., Agarwal, R., Bickers, D.R., Mukhtar, H.: Protection against ultraviolet B radiation-induced photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice by green tea polyphenols. Carcinogenesis 12, 1527–1530 (1991)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Conney, A.H., Wang, Z.Y., Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T., Yang, C.S.: Inhibitory effect of green tea on tumorigenesis by chemicals and ultraviolet light. Prev. Med. 21, 361–369 (1992)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Wang, Z.Y., Huang, M.T., Lou, Y.R., Xie, J.G., Reuhl, K.R., Newmark, H.L., Ho, C.T., Yang, C.S., Conney, A.H.: Inhibitory effects of black tea, green tea, decaffeinated black tea, and decaffeinated green tea on ultraviolet B light-induced skin carcinogenesis in 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated SKH-1 mice. Cancer Res. 54, 3428–3435 (1994)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Conney, A.H., Lu, Y.P., Lou, Y.R., Huang, M.T.: Inhibitory effects of tea and caffeine on UV-induced carcinogenesis: relationship to enhanced apoptosis and decreased tissue fat. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 11(Suppl 2), S28–S36 (2002)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Lu, Y.P., Lou, Y.R., Li, X.H., Xie, J.G., Brash, D., Huang, M.T.: Conney AH (2000) Stimulatory effect of oral administration of green tea or caffeine on ultraviolet light-induced increases in epidermal wild-type p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1), and apoptotic sunburn cells in SKH-1 mice. Cancer Res. 60, 4785–4791 (2000)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Lu, Y.P., Lou, Y.R., Liao, J., Xie, J.G., Peng, Q.Y., Yang, C.S., Conney, A.H.: Administration of green tea or caffeine enhances the disappearance of UVB-induced patches of mutant p53 positive epidermal cells in SKH-1 mice. Carcinogenesis 26, 1465–1472 (2005)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Kramata, P., Lu, Y.P., Lou, Y.R., Cohen, J.L., Olcha, M., Liu, S., Conney, A.H.: Effect of administration of caffeine or green tea on the mutation profile in the p53 gene in early mutant p53-positive patches of epidermal cells induced by chronic UVB-irradiation of hairless SKH-1 mice. Carcinogenesis 26, 1965–1974 (2005)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Katiyar, S.K., Elmets, C.A., Agarwal, R., Mukhtar, H.: Protection against ultraviolet-B radiation-induced local and systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity and edema responses in C3H/HeN mice by green tea polyphenols. Photochem. Photobiol. 62, 855–861 (1995)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Katiyar, S.K., Challa, A., McCormick, T.S., Cooper, K.D., Mukhtar, H.: Prevention of UVB-induced immunosuppression in mice by the green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate may be associated with alterations in IL-10 and IL-12 production. Carcinogenesis 20, 2117–2124 (1999)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Meeran, S.M., Mantena, S.K., Katiyar, S.K.: Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression by (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice is mediated through interleukin 12-dependent DNA repair. Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 2272–2280 (2006)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Bae, J.Y., Choi, J.S., Choi, Y.J., Shin, S.Y., Kang, S.W., Han, S.J., Kang, Y.H.: (−) Epigallocatechin gallate hampers collagen destruction and collagenase activation in ultraviolet-B-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts: involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46, 1298–1307 (2008)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Vayalil, P.K., Mittal, A., Hara, Y., Elmets, C.A., Katiyar, S.K.: Green tea polyphenols prevent ultraviolet light-induced oxidative damage and matrix metalloproteinases expression in mouse skin. J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 1480–1487 (2004)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Song, D.U., Jung, Y.D., Chay, K.O., Chung, M.A., Lee, K.H., Yang, S.Y., Shin, B.A., Ahn, B.W.: Effect of drinking green tea on age-associated accumulation of Maillard-type fluorescence and carbonyl groups in rat aortic and skin collagen. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 397, 424–429 (2002)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Kim, J., Hwang, J.S., Cho, Y.K., Han, Y., Jeon, Y.J., Yang, K.H.: Protective effects of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on UVA- and UVB-induced skin damage. Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol. 14, 11–19 (2001)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Katiyar, S.K., Matsui, M.S., Elmets, C.A., Mukhtar, H.: Polyphenolic antioxidant (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea reduces UVB-induced inflammatory responses and infiltration of leukocytes in human skin. Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 148–153 (1999)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Katiyar, S.K., Afaq, F., Perez, A., Mukhtar, H.: Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment of human skin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress. Carcinogenesis 22, 287–294 (2001)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Elmets, C.A., Singh, D., Tubesing, K., Matsui, M., Katiyar, S., Mukhtar, H.: Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 44, 425–432 (2001)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Katiyar, S.K., Perez, A., Mukhtar, H.: Green tea polyphenol treatment to human skin prevents formation of ultraviolet light B-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Clin. Cancer Res. 6, 3864–3869 (2000)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Chiu, A.E., Chan, J.L., Kern, D.G., Kohler, S., Rehmus, W.E., Kimball, A.B.: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of green tea extracts in the clinical and histologic appearance of photoaging skin. Dermatol. Surg. 31, 855–860 (2005)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Khan, N., Afaq, F., Mukhtar, H.: Cancer chemoprevention through dietary antioxidants: progress and promise. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10, 475–510 (2008)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Afaq, F., Malik, A., Syed, D., Maes, D., Matsui, M.S., Mukhtar, H.: Pomegranate fruit extract modulates UV-B-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and activation of nuclear factor kappa B in normal human epidermal keratinocytes paragraph sign. Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 38–45 (2005)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Syed, D.N., Malik, A., Hadi, N., Sarfaraz, S., Afaq, F., Mukhtar, H.: Photochemopreventive effect of pomegranate fruit extract on UVA-mediated activation of cellular pathways in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 398–405 (2006)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Zaid, M.A., Afaq, F., Syed, D.N., Dreher, M., Mukhtar, H.: Inhibition of UVB-mediated oxidative stress and markers of photoaging in immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes by pomegranate polyphenol extract POMx. Photochem. Photobiol. 83, 882–888 (2007)

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Afaq, F., Syed, D.N., Malik, A., Hadi, N., Sarfaraz, S., Kweon, M.H., Khan, N., Zaid, M.A., Mukhtar, H.: Delphinidin, an anthocyanidin in pigmented fruits and vegetables, protects human HaCaT keratinocytes and mouse skin against UVB-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis. J. Invest. Dermatol. 127, 222–232 (2007)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Afaq, F., Hafeez, B.B., Syed, D.N., Kweon, M.H., Mukhtar, H.: Oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits early biomarkers of UVB radiation-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis. J. Invest. Dermatol. 126, 141 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  51. Afaq, F., Zaid, M.A., Khan, N., Syed, D., Hafeez, B.B., Yun, J., Sarfaraz, S., Mukhtar, H.: Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits UVB-induced activation of NFκB and MAPK leading to decreased expression of matrix metalloprotenaises in SKH-1 mouse skin. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. Los Angeles, CA. 2573, 613 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  52. Afaq, F., Zaid, M.A., Khan, N., Syed, D.N., Yun, J., Sarfaraz, S., Suh, Y., Mukhtar, H.: Inhibitory effect of oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 49, 1246 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  53. Afaq, F., Zaid, M.A., Khan, N., Dreher, M., Mukhtar, H.: Protective effect of pomegranate-derived products on UVB-mediated damage in human reconstituted skin. Exp. Dermatol. 18, 553–561 (2009)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Murad, H., Shellow, V.R.W.: Pomegranate extract both orally ingested and topically applied to augment the SPF of sunscreens. Cosmet. Dermatol. 14, 43 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  55. Kasai, K., Yoshimura, M., Koga, T., Arii, M., Kawasaki, S.: Effects of oral administration of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate extract on ultraviolet-induced pigmentation in the human skin. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo) 52, 383–388 (2006)

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  56. Adhami, V.M., Afaq, F., Ahmad, N.: Suppression of ultraviolet B exposure-mediated activation of NF-kappaB in normal human keratinocytes by resveratrol. Neoplasia 5, 74–82 (2003)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Afaq, F., Adhami, V.M., Ahmad, N.: Prevention of short-term ultraviolet B radiation-mediated damages by resveratrol in SKH-1 hairless mice. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 186, 28–37 (2003)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Reagan-Shaw, S., Afaq, F., Aziz, M.H., Ahmad, N.: Modulations of critical cell cycle regulatory events during chemoprevention of ultraviolet B-mediated responses by resveratrol in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Oncogene 23, 5151–5160 (2004)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Aziz, M.H., Afaq, F., Ahmad, N.: Prevention of ultraviolet-B radiation damage by resveratrol in mouse skin is mediated via modulation in surviving. Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 25–31 (2005)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Aziz, M.H., Reagan-Shaw, S., Wu, J., Longley, B.J., Ahmad, N.: Chemoprevention of skin cancer by grape constituent resveratrol: relevance to human disease? FASEB J. 19, 1193–1195 (2005)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Cao, C., Lu, S., Kivlin, R., Wallin, B., Card, E., Bagdasarian, A., Tamakloe, T., Wang, W.J., Song, X., Chu, W.M., Kouttab, N., Xu, A., Wan, Y.: SIRT1 confers protection against UVB- and H(2)O(2)-induced cell death via modulation of p53 and JNK in cultured skin keratinocytes. J Cell Mol Med Aug 4 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  62. Svobodová, A., Zdarilová, A., Malisková, J., Mikulková, H., Walterová, D., Vostalová, J.: Attenuation of UVA-induced damage to human keratinocytes by silymarin. J. Dermatol. Sci. 46, 21–30 (2007)

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Katiyar, S.K., Roy, A.M., Baliga, M.S.: Silymarin induces apoptosis primarily through a p53-dependent pathway involving Bcl-2/Bax, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. Mol. Cancer Ther. 4, 207–216 (2005)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Dhanalakshmi, S., Mallikarjuna, G.U., Singh, R.P., Agarwal, R.: Dual efficacy of silibinin in protecting or enhancing ultraviolet B radiation-caused apoptosis in HaCaT human immortalized keratinocytes. Carcinogenesis 25, 99–106 (2004)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Katiyar, S.K., Korman, N.J., Mukhtar, H., Agarwal, R.: Protective effects of silymarin against photocarcinogenesis in a mouse skin model. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 89, 556–566 (1997)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Dhanalakshmi, S., Mallikarjuna, G.U., Singh, R.P., Agarwal, R.: Silibinin prevents ultraviolet radiation-caused skin damages in SKH-1 hairless mice via a decrease in thymine dimer positive cells and an up-regulation of p53-p21/Cip1 in epidermis. Carcinogenesis 25, 1459–1465 (2004)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Dhanalakshmi, S., Agarwal, C., Singh, R.P., Agarwal, R.: Silibinin up-regulates DNA-protein kinase-dependent p53 activation to enhance UVB-induced apoptosis in mouse epithelial JB6 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 20375–20383 (2005)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Katiyar, S.K.: Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse skin. Int. J. Oncol. 21, 1213–1222 (2002)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Meeran, S.M., Katiyar, S., Elmets, C.A., Katiyar, S.K.: Silymarin inhibits UV radiation-induced immunosuppression through augmentation of interleukin-12 in mice. Mol. Cancer Ther. 5, 1660–1668 (2006)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Katiyar, S.K., Meleth, S., Sharma, S.D.: Silymarin, a flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), inhibits UV-induced oxidative stress through targeting infiltrating CD11b+ cells in mouse skin. Photochem. Photobiol. 84, 266–271 (2008)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Brand, R.M., Jendrzejewski, J.L.: Topical treatment with (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and genistein after a single UV exposure can reduce skin damage. J. Dermatol. Sci. 50, 69–72 (2008)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Miller, C.C., Hale, P., Pentland, A.P.: Ultraviolet B injury increases prostaglandin synthesis through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway. Evidence for UVB-induced epidermal growth factor receptor activation. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 3529–3533 (1994)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Isoherranen, K., Westermarck, J., Kähäri, V.M., Jansén, C., Punnonen, K.: Differential regulation of the AP-1 family members by UV irradiation in vitro and in vivo. Cell. Signal. 10, 191–195 (1998)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Lin, J.Y., Tournas, J.A., Burch, J.A., Monteiro-Riviere, N.A., Zielinski, J.: Topical isoflavones provide effective photoprotection to skin. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 24, 61–66 (2008)

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Widyarini, S., Spinks, N., Husband, A.J., Reeve, V.E.: Isoflavonoid compounds from red clover (Trifolium pratense) protect from inflammation and immune suppression induced by UV radiation. Photochem. Photobiol. 74, 465–470 (2001)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Moore, J.O., Wang, Y., Stebbins, W.G., Gao, D., Zhou, X., Phelps, R., Lebwohl, M., Wei, H.: Photoprotective effect of isoflavone genistein on ultraviolet B-induced pyrimidine dimer formation and PCNA expression in human ­reconstituted skin and its implications in dermatology and prevention of cutaneous carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 27, 1627–1635 (2006)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Wei, H., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Lebwohl, M.: Inhibition of ultraviolet light-induced oxidative events in the skin and internal organs of hairless mice by isoflavonegenistein. Cancer Lett. 185, 21–29 (2002)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Maheshwari, R.K., Singh, A.K., Gaddipati, J., Srimal, R.C.: Multiple biological activities of curcumin: a short review. Life Sci. 78, 2081–2087 (2006)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Aggarwal, B.B., Kumar, A., Bharti, A.C.: Anticancer potential of curcumin: preclinical and clinical studies. Anticancer Res. 23, 363–398 (2003)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Cho, J.W., Park, K., Kweon, G.R., Jang, B.C., Baek, W.K., Suh, M.H., Kim, C.W., Lee, K.S., Suh, S.I.: Curcumin inhibits the expression of COX-2 in UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) by inhibiting activation of AP-1: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential upstream targets. Exp. Mol. Med. 37, 186–192 (2005)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Park, K., Lee, J.H.: Photosensitizer effect of curcumin on UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells through activation of caspase pathways. Oncol. Rep. 17, 537–540 (2007)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Dujic, J., Kippenberger, S., Hoffmann, S., Ramirez-Bosca, A., Miquel, J., Diaz-Alperi, J., Bereiter-Hahn, J., Kaufmann, R., Bernd, A.: Low concentrations of curcumin induce growth arrest and apoptosis in skin keratinocytes only in combination with UVA or visible light. J. Invest. Dermatol. 127, 1992–2000 (2007)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Brigelius-Flohé, R., Banning, A.: Part of the series: from dietary antioxidants to regulators in cellular signaling and gene regulation. Sulforaphane and selenium, partners in adaptive response and prevention of cancer. Free Radic. Res. 40, 775–787 (2006)

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Jin, C.Y., Moon, D.O., Lee, J.D., Heo, M.S., Choi, Y.H., Lee, C.M., Park, Y.M., Kim, G.Y.: Sulforaphane sensitizes tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis through downregulation of ERK and Akt in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Carcinogenesis 28, 1058–1066 (2007)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Dashwood, R.H., Ho, E.: Dietary histone deacetylase inhibitors: from cells to mice to man. Semin. Cancer Biol. 17, 363–369 (2007)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Myzak, M.C., Karplus, P.A., Chung, F.L., Dashwood, R.H.: A novel mechanism of chemoprotection by sulforaphane: inhibition of histone deacetylase. Cancer Res. 64, 5767–5774 (2004)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Dinkova-Kostova, A.T., Holtzclaw, W.D., Cole, R.N., Itoh, K., Wakabayashi, N., Katoh, Y., Yamamoto, M., Talalay, P.: Direct evidence that sulfhydryl groups of Keap1 are the sensors regulating induction of phase 2 enzymes that protect against carcinogens and oxidants. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11908–11913 (2002)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Dinkova-Kostova, A.T., Fahey, J.W., Wade, K.L., Jenkins, S.N., Shapiro, T.A., Fuchs, E.J., Kerns, M.L., Talalay, P.: Induction of the phase 2 response in mouse and human skin by sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 16, 847–851 (2007)

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  89. Zhu, M., Zhang, Y., Cooper, S., Sikorski, E., Rohwer, J., Bowden, G.T.: Phase II enzyme inducer, sulforaphane, inhibits UVB-induced AP-1 activation in human keratinocytes by a novel mechanism. Mol. Carcinog. 41, 179–186 (2004)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Dinkova-Kostova, A.T., Jenkins, S.N., Fahey, J.W., Ye, L., Wehage, S.L., Liby, K.T., Stephenson, K.K., Wade, K.L., Talalay, P.: Protection against UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 high-risk mice by sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout extracts. Cancer Lett. 240, 243–252 (2006)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. Talalay, P., Fahey, J.W., Healy, Z.R., Wehage, S.L., Benedict, A.L., Min, C., Dinkova-Kostova, A.T.: Sulforaphane mobilizes cellular defenses that protect skin against damage by UV radiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 17500–17505 (2007)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. Khachik, F., Beecher, G.R., Goli, M.B., Lusby, W.R.: Separation, identification, and quantification of carotenoids in fruits, vegetables and human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography. Pure Appl. Chem. 63, 71–80 (1991)

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  93. Ribaya-Mercado, J.D., Garmyn, M., Gilchrest, B.A., Russell, R.M.: Skin lycopene is destroyed preferentially over beta-carotene during ultraviolet irradiation in humans. J. Nutr. 125, 1854–1859 (1995)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. Stahl, W., Heinrich, U., Wiseman, S., Eichler, O., Sies, H., Tronnier, H.: Dietary tomato paste protects against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. J. Nutr. 131, 1449–1451 (2001)

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. Eichler, O., Sies, H., Stahl, W.: Divergent optimum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and lutein protecting against UVB irradiation in human fibroblastst. Photochem. Photobiol. 75, 503–506 (2002)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  96. Aust, O., Stahl, W., Sies, H., Tronnier, H., Heinrich, U.: Supplementation with tomato-based products increases lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene levels in human serum and protects against UV-light-induced erythema. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 75, 54–60 (2005)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  97. Fazekas, Z., Gao, D., Saladi, R.N., Lu, Y., Lebwohl, M., Wei, H.: Protective effects of lycopene against ultraviolet B-induced photodamage. Nutr. Cancer 47, 181–187 (2003)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  98. Astner, S., Wu, A., Chen, J., Philips, N., Rius-Diaz, F., Parrado, C., Mihm, M.C., Goukassian, D.A., Pathak, M.A., González, S.: Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin partially reduces photoaging and photocarcinogenesis in chronically UVB-irradiated Skh-1 hairless mice. Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 20, 283–291 (2007)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. Palombo, P., Fabrizi, G., Ruocco, V., Ruocco, E., Fluhr, J., Roberts, R., Morganti, P.: Beneficial long-term effects of combined oral/topical antioxidant treatment with the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin on human skin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 20, 199–210 (2007)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  100. González, S., Astner, S., An, W., Goukassian, D., Pathak, M.A.: Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin decreases ultraviolet B-induced epidermal hyperproliferation and acute inflammation in hairless mice. Invest. Dermatol. 121, 399–405 (2003)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  101. Philips, N., Keller, T., Hendrix, C., Hamilton, S., Arena, R., Tuason, M., Gonzalez, S.: Regulation of the extracellular matrix remodeling by lutein in dermal fibroblasts, melanoma cells, and ultraviolet radiation exposed fibroblasts. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 299, 373–379 (2007)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  102. Lee, E.H., Faulhaber, D., Hanson, K.M., Ding, W., Peters, S., Kodali, S., Granstein, R.D.: Dietary lutein reduces ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and immunosuppression. J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 510–517 (2004)

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hasan Mukhtar .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2010 Springer Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Afaq, F., Mukhtar, H. (2010). Botanical Antioxidants for Skin Protection: An Overview. In: Krutmann, J., Humbert, P. (eds) Nutrition for Healthy Skin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12264-4_5

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12264-4_5

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-12263-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-12264-4

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)