Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors originating in the anterior mediastinum represent a challenging group of neoplasms. Survival depends on postchemotherapy surgery to completely remove residual disease. Postchemotherapy mediastinal surgery, however, is technically demanding. Choosing the surgical approach that will provide optimal exposure of residual disease and surrounding structures is initially critical. An aggressive but balanced surgical approach can remove extremely large residual masses with tumor-free margins. This chapter outlines the surgical approaches and techniques used for postchemotherapy mediastinal dissection.
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