Pulmonary aspergilloma is defined as a thick-walled cavity surrounded by lung which contains an aspergillus fungus ball. These organisms typically form a fungus ball (or mycetoma) within pre-existing lung cavities. The fungus ball itself is composed of Aspergillus hyphae, fibrin, mucus, and cellular debris. Chronic inflammation within and around the cavity can lead to hemoptysis, ranging from mild to massive. Aspergilloma can be categorized into simple and complex forms based upon the radiographic appearance. Efficacy of medical therapy alone for an aspergilloma is poor, and surgical therapy provides the best chance for cure. Surgical options include formal anatomic lung resection, or a technique termed cavernostomy involving localized thoracostomy, pneumotomy and evacuation of the mycetoma. Complication and mortality rates have improved dramatically in modern series.
KeywordsInvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Bronchopleural Fistula Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Fungus Ball Pleural Adhesion
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