Advertisement

On the age validation of supercentenarians

  • Michel Poulain
Chapter
Part of the Demographic Research Monographs book series (DEMOGRAPHIC)

Abstract

As age inaccuracy was often observed in past populations, and is still commonly observed today in populations without efficient civil registration, age validation is essential to all scientific research on longevity in demography, genetics, epidemiology, and medicine. Thoms, in 1873, was probably the first scientist who pointed out that the ages of most centenarians were effectively exaggerated. To address this problem, Thoms introduced strict rules for researchers to follow when validating ages. Even today, these strict rules are still not being systematically applied, although some authors have recently proposed precise classifications for the level of age validation. In this chapter, we will look at some of the ways age validation is currently being conducted in different settings, and we will then present details on the age validation of some recent supercentenarians, including several exemplary cases of invalidation.

Keywords

Birth Record Identity Card Death Record Birth Registration Civil Registration System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bennett, N.G. and Garson, L.K. (1986). Extraordinary longevity in the Soviet Union: fact or artifact? The Gerontologist, 26:358–361.Google Scholar
  2. Biridivashili, I., Herm, A., and Poulain, M. (2003). Are there any centenarians in Georgia? Paper presented at the EAPS Conference in Warsaw.Google Scholar
  3. Bowerman, W.G. (1939). Centenarians. Transactions of the Actuaries Society of America, 40:361–378.Google Scholar
  4. Caselli, G., Pozzi, L., Vaupel, J.W., Deiana, L., Pes, G.M., Carru, C., Franceschi, C. and Baggio, G. (2006). Family clustering in Sardinian longevity: A genealogical approach. Experimental Gerontology, 41(8):727–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Condran, G.A., Himes, C.L. and Preston, S.H. (1991). Old-age mortality patterns in low-mortality countries: An evaluation of population and death data at advanced ages, 1950 to the present. Population Bulletin of the UN, 30:23.Google Scholar
  6. Deiana, L., Ferrucci, L., Pes, G.M., Carru, C., Delitala, G., Ganau, A., Mariotti, S., Nieddu, A., Pettinato, S., Putzu, P., Franceschi, C. and Baggio, G. (1999). AKEntAnnos. The Sardinia study of extreme longevity. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 11(3):142–149.Google Scholar
  7. Deiana, L., Ferrucci, L., Pes, G.M., Carru, C., Franceschi, C. and Baggio, G. (2002). The oldest man on the planet. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 50(12):2098–2099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hynes, J. (1995). The oldest old in pre-industrial Britain: Centenarians before 1800 - fact or fiction?, chapter Jeune B. and Vaupel J.W. (eds.) Exceptional longevity: From prehistory to the present, pages 75–92. Odense University Press, Odense, Denmark. Odense monographs on Population Aging 2.Google Scholar
  9. Jeune, B. (1995). In search of the first centenarians, chapter Jeune B. and Vaupel J.W. (eds.), Exceptional longevity: From prehistory to the present, pages 11–24. Odense University Press, Odense, Denmark. Odense Monographs on Population Aging 2.Google Scholar
  10. Jeune, B. and Vaupel, J.W. (1995). Validation of exceptional longevity. Odense Monographs on Population Aging No. 6. Odense University Press, Odense, Denmark.Google Scholar
  11. Jeune, B. and Vaupel, J.W. (1996). Criteria for age validation of alleged centenarians and supercentenarians at different levels of credibility. Paper presented to the IPSEN workshop help in Paris in 1996.Google Scholar
  12. Jeune, B. and Vaupel, J.W. (1999). Exceptional longevity: from prehistory to the present. Odense Monographs on Population Aging No. 2. Odense University Press, Odense, Denmark.Google Scholar
  13. Matsukasi, T. (1988). Examination of centenarians and factors affecting longevity in Japan, chapter Hishinuma S. (ed.), Why do the Japanese live long?, pages 11–24. Tokyo, Doban.Google Scholar
  14. Mazess, R.B. and Forman, S.H. (1979). Longevity and age exaggeration in Vilcabamba, Ecuador. Journal of Gerontology, 34(1):94–98.Google Scholar
  15. Medvedev, Z.A. (1974). Caucasus and altay longevity: A biological or social problem? Gerontologist, 14:381–387.Google Scholar
  16. Myers, R. J. (1978). An investigation of the age of an alleged centenarian. Demography, 15(2):235–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Palmore, E.B (1984). Longevity in Abkhazia: A reevaluation. The Gerontologist, 24:95–96.Google Scholar
  18. Poulain, M., Chambre, D., and Foulon, M. (1999). Centenarian validation in Belgium, chapter Jeune, B. and Vaupel, J.W. (eds.), Validation of exceptional longevity, pages 97–118. Odense University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Poulain, M., Deiana, L., Ferrucci, L., Pes, G.M., Carru, C., Franceschi, C. and Baggio, G. (2006). Evidence of an exceptional longevity for the mountainous population of Sardinia, chapter Robine, J.M. and Horiuchi, S. (eds.), Human longevity, individual life duration and the growth of the oldest-old population. Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Poulain, M., Pes, G.M., Grasland, C., Carru, C., Ferrucci, L., Baggio, G., Franceschi, C. and Deiana, L. (2004). Identification of a geographic area characterized by extreme longevity in the Sardinia Island: The AKEA study. Experimental Gerontology, 39:1423–1429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Quételet, A. (1846). Recensement de la population et des logements. Bruxelles, Commission centrale de statistique.Google Scholar
  22. Rosenwaike, I. (1979). A new evaluation of United States census data on the extreme aged. Demography, 16(2):279–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rosenwaike, I. and Stone, L.F. (2003). Verification of the ages of supercentenarians in the United States: Results of a matching study. Demography, 40(4):727–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Skytthe, A. and Jeune, B. (1995). Danish centenarians after 1800, chapter Jeune, B. and Vaupel J.W. (eds.), Exceptional longevity: From prehistory to the present, Odense Monographs on Population Aging, 2, pages 55–66. Odense University Press, Odense, Denmark.Google Scholar
  25. Thatcher, R. (1992). Trends in number and mortality at high ages in England and Wales. Demography, 46:411–426.Google Scholar
  26. Thoms, W.J. (1873). Human longevity, its facts and its fictions. John Murray, London.Google Scholar
  27. Thoms, W.J. (1879). The longevity of man. Frederic Norgate, London.Google Scholar
  28. Vincent, P. (1951). La mortalitè des vieillards. Population, 6:181–204.Google Scholar
  29. Vischer, A.L. (1945). Medizinische Betrachtungen bei einem Hundertjährigen. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, 75:748–748.Google Scholar
  30. Yeganyan, R., Baduradshili, I., Andreev, E., Mesle, F., Shkolnikov, V., and Vallin, J. (2001). Life expectancy in two Caucasian countries. Demographic Research, 5(7):217–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Young, T.E. (1899). On centenarians and the duration of human race. Charles and Edwin Layton, London.Google Scholar
  32. Young, T.E. (1905). On centenarians. London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Groupe d’étude de Démographie AppliquéeUniversité Catholique de LouvainLouvain-La-NeuveBelgium

Personalised recommendations