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Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

  • Ritesh AgarwalEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome of lung injury characterized by severe dyspnea, refractory hypoxemia, and bilateral radiographic opacities. It is clinically defined by the following criteria: acute onset (less than 7 days), bilateral alveolar opacities consistent with pulmonary edema, Pao2/Fio2 < 200, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure less than 18 mmHg, or no clinical evidence of left atrial hypertension [1]. It is now recognized that there is a gradation of the severity of clinical lung injury: patients with less-severe hypoxemia (defined by a Pao2/Fio2 ratio of 300 or less) are considered to have acute lung injury (ALI), and those with more severe hypoxemia (defined by a Pao2/Fio2 ratio of 200 or less) are considered to have ARDS [1]. The mainstay of treatment for patients with ALI/ARDS is intubation and mechanical ventilation. However, endotracheal intubation is associated with significant morbidity, including upper airway trauma, barotrauma, and pneumonia [2–4]. As a result, any intervention that obviates the need for endotracheal intubation in ALI/ARDS is welcome.

Keywords

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Endotracheal Intubation Acute Respiratory Failure Simplify Acute Physiology Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pulmonary MedicinePostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

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