Growing evidence indicates that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is the standard first-line therapy for cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NIV is also starting to be tried out in the emergency department (ED) for other diseases, such as asthma, acute exacerbation of other types of hypercapnic failure, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Furthermore, since respiratory distress due to CPE can be rapidly retrieved even with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which has the great advantage of easy application, prehospital CPAP for presumed CPE is considered to be at the cutting edge of emergency medicine.
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