Evaluation and Repair of Laryngotracheoesophageal Clefts

  • Katherine K. HammingEmail author
  • Frank L. Rimell


A laryngotracheoesophageal cleft (LTEC) is a fissure between the laryngotracheal and pharyngoesophageal systems. The incidence is currently estimated to be 1:10,000 to 1:20,000 births and is increasing as less severe clefts are more often recognized [18]. Laryngeal clefts are more common in male children, with a male to female ratio of 5:3. Sixty percent are associated with other congenital abnormalities, most commonly tracheoesophageal fistula and tracheomalacia [12].


Esophageal Atresia Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Cricoid Cartilage Tracheoesophageal Fistula 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Pediatric Otolaryngology, Pediatric Airway CenterAdvocate Children’s HospitalPark RidgeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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