Contract Observation in Web Services Environments

  • Jiří Bíba
  • Jiří Hodík
  • Michal Jakob
  • Michal Pěchouček
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5907)


Electronic contracting, based on explicit representation of different parties’ commitments, is a promising way to specifying and regulating behaviour in distributed business applications. A key part of contract-based system is a process through which the actual behaviour of individual parties is checked for conformance with contracts set to govern such behaviour. Such checking requires that relevant information on the behaviour of the parties, both with respect to the application processes they execute and to managing their contractual relationships, is captured. The process of collecting all such information, termed contract observation, is the subject of this paper. First, we describe general properties and requirements of such an observation process; afterwards, we discuss specifics of realising contract observation in web services environments. Finally, we show how contract observation has been implemented as part of the IST-CONTRACT web services framework for contract-based systems.


Multiagent System Service Composition Contract Parti Observation Process Business Process Execution Language 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Confalonieri, R., Álvarez-Napagao, S., Panagiotidi, S., Vázquez-Salceda, J., Willmott, S.: A middleware architecture for building contract-aware agent-based services. In: Kowalczyk, R., Huhns, M.N., Klusch, M., Maamar, Z., Vo, Q.B. (eds.) Service-Oriented Computing: Agents, Semantics, and Engineering. LNCS, vol. 5006, pp. 1–14. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oren, N., Panagiotidi, S., Vazquez-Salceda, J., Modgil, S., Luck, M., Miles, S.: Towards a formalisation of electronic contracting environments. In: COIN 2008: Proceedings of AAAI Workhop on Coordination, Organization, Institutions and Norms in Agent Systems (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    FIPA: Foundation for intelligent physical agents (December 2003),
  4. 4.
    Faci, N., Modgil, S., Oren, N., Meneguzzi, F., Miles, S., Luck, M.: Towards a monitoring framework for agent-based contract systems. In: Klusch, M., Pěchouček, M., Polleres, A. (eds.) CIA 2008. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5180, pp. 292–305. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jakob, M., Miles, S., Luck, M., Oren, N., Kollingbaum, M., Holt, C., Vazquez, J., Storms, P., Dehn, M.: Case Studies for Contract-based Systems. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Keller, A., Ludwig, H.: The WSLA Framework: Specifying and Monitoring Service Level Agreements for Web Services. Journal of Network and Systems Management 11(1), 57–81 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andrieux, A., Czajkowski, K., Dan, A., Keahey, K., Ludwig, H., Pruyne, J., Rofrano, J., Tuecke, S., Xu, M.: Web Services Agreement Specification (WS-Agreement). In: Global Grid Forum GRAAP-WG, Draft (August 2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schopf, J., Raicu, I.: Pearlman Let al. Monitoring and discovery in a web services framework: Functionality and performance of Globus Toolkit MDS4. Technical report, Technical Report, Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xu, L., Jeusfeld, M.: Pro-active Monitoring of Electronic Contracts. In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering, pp. 584–600. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Milosevic, Z., Gibson, S., Linington, P., Cole, J., Kulkarni, S.: On design and implementation of a contract monitoring facility. In: Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Electronic Contracting, pp. 62–70 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mahbub, K., Spanoudakis, G.: A framework for requirents monitoring of service based systems. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Service oriented computing, pp. 84–93. ACM New York, NY (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baresi, L., Guinea, S.: Towards Dynamic Monitoring of WS-BPEL Processes. In: Benatallah, B., Casati, F., Traverso, P. (eds.) ICSOC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3826, pp. 269–282. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barbon, F., Traverso, P., Pistore, M., Trainotti, M.: Run-time monitoring of instances and classes of web service compositions. In: ICWS, vol. 6, pp. 63–71Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Radha Krishna, P., Karlapalem, K., Chiu, D.: An EREC framework for e-contract modeling, enactment and monitoring. Data & Knowledge Engineering 51(1), 31–58 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    OASIS: Oasis web services business process execution language (wsbpel) Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2.0. Committee Draft (May 2006),
  16. 16.
    Leavens, G., Baker, A., Ruby, C.: Preliminary design of JML: a behavioral interface specification language for java. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes 31(3), 1–38 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiří Bíba
    • 1
  • Jiří Hodík
    • 1
  • Michal Jakob
    • 1
  • Michal Pěchouček
    • 1
  1. 1.Agent Technology Center, Dept. of Cybernetics, FEECzech Technical UniversityPrague 6Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations