Semantic Challenges for Sensor Plug and Play

  • Arne Bröring
  • Krzysztof Janowicz
  • Christoph Stasch
  • Werner Kuhn
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5886)


The goal of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is the definition of web service interfaces and data encodings to make sensors discoverable, taskable and accessible on the World Wide Web. The SWE specifications enable a standardized communication and interaction with arbitrary types of sensors and sensor systems. The central concepts within OGC’s Sensor Web architecture are sensors, observations and features of interest. Sensors and their observations can be registered and stored through the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) to make them accessible for clients. So far, mechanisms are missing which support a semantic matching between features of interest stored in a database and referred to by an observation. The same applies for the matching between observations as sensor outputs and the properties of the features of interest. By taking a use case from disaster management, we outline the challenges and demonstrate how semantically annotated SWE data models and service interfaces support semantic matching. The result is a roadmap towards a semantically enabled sensor plug & play within the Sensor Web.


Semantic Annotation Open Geospatial Consortium Semantic Match Sensor Observation Real World Entity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Connaghan, D., Hughe, S., May, G., O’Brien, K., Kelly, P., Connaire, C.O., O’Connor, N., O’Gorman, D., Warrington, G., Smeaton, A.F., Moyna., N.: A Sensing Platform for Physiological and Contextual Feedback to Tennis Athletes. In: BSN 2009 - Body Sensor Networks Workshop (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hayes, J., O’Conor, E., Cleary, J., Kolar, H., McCarthy, R., Tynan, R., O’Hare, R., Smeaton, A., O’Connor, N., Diamond, D.: Views From the Coalface: Chemo-Sensors, Sensor Networks and the Semantic Sensor Web. In: SemSensWeb 2009 - International Workshop on the Semantic Sensor Web (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shepherd, D., Kumar, S.: Microsensor Applications. In: Distributed Sensor Networks. Chapman and Hall, Boca Raton (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Botts, M., Percivall, G., Reed, C., Davidson, J.: OGC Sensor Web Enablement: Overview And High Level Architecture. Technical report, Open Geospatial Consortium (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Janowicz, K., Schade, S., Bröring, A., Keßler, C., Stasch, C., Maué, P., Diekhof, T.: A transparent semantic enablement layer for the geospatial web. In: Terra Cognita 2009 Workshop In conjunction with the 8th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2009 (forthcomming, 2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sheth, A., Henson, C., Sahoo, S.: Semantic Sensor Web. IEEE Internet Computing, 78–83 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Henson, C.A., Pschorr, J.K., Sheth, A.P., Thirunarayan, K.: SemSOS: Semantic Sensor Observation Service. In: International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and Systems, CTS 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Na, A., Priest, M.: OGC Implementation Specification 06-009r6: OpenGIS Sensor Observation Service, SOS (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Botts, M.: OGC Implementation Specification 07-000: OpenGIS Sensor Model Language, SensorML (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cox, S.: OGC Implementation Specification 07-022r1: Observations and Measurements - Part 1 - Observation schema (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cox, S.: OGC Implementation Specification 07-022r3: Observations and Measurements - Part 2 - Sampling Features. Technical report, Open Geospatial Consortium (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stasch, C., Janowicz, K., Broering, A., Reis, I., Kuhn, W.: A Stimulus-Centric Algebraic Approach to Sensors and Observations. In: Trigoni, N., Markham, A., Nawaz, S. (eds.) 3rd International Conference on Geosensor Networks. LNCS, vol. 5659, pp. 169–179. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kuhn, W.: A functional ontology of observation and measurement (2009) (under review) The ontology,
  14. 14.
    Guarino, N.: Formal Ontology and Information Systems. In: Guarino, N. (ed.) International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS 1998), pp. 3–15. IOS Press, Trento (1998)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kuhn, W.: Semantic Engineering. In: Navratil, G. (ed.) Research Trends in Geographic Information Science. Springer, Heidelberg (forthcoming, 2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Allemang, D., Hendler, J.: Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist: Modeling in RDF, RDFS and OWL. Morgan Kaufmann Elsevier, Amsterdam (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shvaiko, P., Euzenat, J.: Ten Challenges for Ontology Matching. In: Meersman, R., Tari, Z. (eds.) OTM 2008, Part II. LNCS, vol. 5332, pp. 1164–1182. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harvey, F., Kuhn, W., Pundt, H., Bisher, Y., Riedemann, C.: Semantic Interoperability: A Central Issue for Sharing Geographic Information. The Annals of Regional Science 33, 213–232 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Janowicz, K., Keßler, C., Schwarz, M., Wilkes, M., Panov, I., Espeter, M., Baeumer, B.: Algorithm, Implementation and Application of the SIM-DL Similarity Server. In: Fonseca, F., Rodríguez, M.A., Levashkin, S. (eds.) GeoS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4853, pp. 128–145. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Janowicz, K., Wilkes, M.: SIM-DLA: A Novel Semantic Similarity Measure for Description Logics Reducing Inter-concept to Inter-instance Similarity. In: Aroyo, L., Traverso, P., Ciravegna, F., Cimiano, P., Heath, T., Hyvoenen, E., Mizoguchi, R., Oren, E., Sabou, M., Simperl, E.P.B. (eds.) ESWC 2009. LNCS, vol. 5554, pp. 353–367. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Compton, M., Henson, C., Lefort, L., Neuhaus, H.: A survey of the semantic specification of sensors. Technical report (2009),
  22. 22.
    Stasch, C., Walkowski, A.C., Jirka, S.: A Geosensor Network Architecture for Disaster Management based on Open Standards. In: Ehlers, M., Behncke, K., Gerstengabe, F.W., Hillen, F., Koppers, L., Stroink, L., Wächter, J. (eds.) Digital Earth Summit on Geoinformatics 2008: Tools for Climate Change Research, pp. 54–59 (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Harnad, S.: The Symbol Grounding Problem. Physica D 42, 335–346 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kuhn, W.: Semantic Reference Systems. International Journal of Geographic Information Science 17(5), 405–409 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scheider, S., Janowicz, K., Kuhn, W.: Grounding Geographic Categories in the Meaningful Environment. In: Stewart Hornby, K., et al. (eds.) COSIT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5756, pp. 69–87. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Probst, F., Lutz, M.: Giving Meaning to GI Web Service Descriptions. In: 2nd International Workshop on Web Services: Modeling, Architecture and Infrastructure (WSMAI 2004), Porto, Portugal (2004)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stock, K., Small, M., Ou, Y., Reitsma, F.: OGC Discussion Paper 09-010 - OWL Application Profile of CSW. Technical report, Open Geospatial Consortium (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Whiteside, A.: OGC Recommendation Paper 05-010: URNs of Definitions in OGC Namespace (2007)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Probst, F., Espeter, M.: Spatial dimensionality as a classification criterion for qualities. In: Bennett, B., Fellbaum, C. (eds.) International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS 2006). Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 150, pp. 77–88. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2006)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Farrell, J., Lausen, H.: Semantic annotations for WSDL and XML schema. W3C recommendation (2007),
  31. 31.
    Maué, P., Schade, S., Duchesne, P.: OGC Discussion Paper 08-167r1: Semantic annotations in OGC standards. Technical report, OGC (2009)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hornsby, K., King, K.: Linking geosensor network data and ontologies to support transportation modeling. In: Nittel, S., Labrinidis, A., Stefanidis, A. (eds.) GSN 2006. LNCS, vol. 4540, pp. 191–209. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Simonis, I.: OGC Implementation Specification 07-014r3: OpenGIS Sensor Planning Service. Technical report, Open Geospatial Consortium (2007)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schut, P.: OGC Implementation Specification 05-007r7: OpenGIS Web Processing Service (2007)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nebert, D., Whiteside, A., Vretanos, P.: OGC Implementation Specification 07-006r1: OpenGIS Catalogue Services Specification (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arne Bröring
    • 1
  • Krzysztof Janowicz
    • 1
  • Christoph Stasch
    • 1
  • Werner Kuhn
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for GeoinformaticsUniversity of MuensterGermany

Personalised recommendations