Collaboration in modeling is essential to success, but ORM diagrams intimidate many business people, and most would never install an ORM modeling tool on their computers.

The Constellation Query Language (CQL) offers an alternative able to represent almost any ORM2 model in plain text using natural language, with the goal of supporting involvement by all parties through familiar tools including email and differential revision management.

The free open source implementation includes robust mapping and code generation for both object-oriented and relational models. Being bootstrapped on a metamodel that is also expressed in the Constellation Query Languge, it forms the basis of a new generation of extensible tools for business requirements management, design and construction of databases and application software, and end-user query facilities.


Object Type Entity Type Uniqueness Constraint Plain Text Fact Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Codd, E.: A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks. CACM 13(6) (1970)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Object Role Modeling,
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Ambler, S.: The Cultural Impedance Mismatch (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    17 co-authors (2001),
  7. 7.
    Standish Group: Collaborating on project success (2001),
  8. 8.
    Nierstrasz, O., Demeyer, S., p. 30 (2000),
  9. 9.
    David, A.: Just Enough Requirements Management (2004),
  10. 10.
    Object Management Group: The Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (2008),
  11. 11.
    Heath, C.: Introduction to the Constellation Query Language ( 2007-2009),
  12. 12.
    Dijkstra, E.W. On the foolishness of natural language programmingGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bloesch, A., Halpin, T.: ConQuer: a conceptual query language. In: Thalheim, B. (ed.) ER 1996. LNCS, vol. 1157, pp. 121–133. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bloesch, A., Halpin, T.: Conceptual queries using ConQuer-II. In: Embley, D.W. (ed.) ER 1997. LNCS, vol. 1331, pp. 113–126. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Microsoft ActiveQuery product has been withdrawn from saleGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Halpin, T., Morgan, T.: Information Modeling and Relational Databases, 2nd edn. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meersman, R.: The RIDL conceptual language, Research report, Int. Centre for Information Analysis Services, Control Data Belgium, Brussels, Belgium (1982)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hofstede, A.H.M., ter Proper, H.A., van der Weide, P.: Formal definition of a conceptual language for the description and manipulation of information models. Information Systems 18(7), 489–523 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    The Natural Object Role Modeling Architect,
  20. 20.
    Ford, B.: Packrat Parsing: a Practical Linear-Time Algorithm with Backtracking. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2002),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clifford Heath
    • 1
  1. 1.Data Constellation 

Personalised recommendations