Advertisement

Functional Phthalocyanines: Synthesis, Nanostructuration, and Electro-Optical Applications

  • Gema de la Torre
  • Giovanni Bottari
  • Uwe Hahn
  • Tomas TorresEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 135)

Abstract

This overview focuses on the design and preparation of phthalocyanines (Pcs) and covers both fundamental synthetic approaches and more applied research. Thus, different topics including, e.g., the preparation of conjugated assemblies using Pcs as synthetic building blocks, the supramolecular organization of appropriately featured Pc-molecules, and the incorporation of Pcs into dendrimers and polymers, are discussed in this chapter. The second part of the review has been devoted to more technological aspects of these compounds covering Pc-based nanostructures and Pcs as active components of functional devices.

Keywords

Functional phthalocyanines Macromolecular structures Multicomponent assemblies Nanostructuration Supramolecular organization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support from the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología (CTQ2008–00418/BQU, Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2007–00010 Nanociencia Molecular, -MEC MAT2006–28180-E, SOHYDS), and Comunidad de Madrid (MADRISOLAR, S-0505/PPQ/0225) is gratefully acknowledged. GB and UH thank the Spanish MEC for their “Ramon y Cajal” contract.

References

  1. 1.
    Leznoff CC, Lever ABP (eds) (1989, 1993, 1996) Phthalocyanines: properties and applications, vols 1–4. VCH Publishers, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kadish KM, Smith KM, Guilard R (eds) (2003) The porphyrin handbook, vols 15–20. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McKeown NB (1998) Phthalocyanine materials: synthesis, structure and function. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    de la Torre G, Nicolau M, Torres T (2001) In: Nalwa H (ed) Supramolecular photosensitive and electroactive materials. Academic, New York, p 1Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    de la Torre G, Vazquez P, Agullo-Lopez F, Torres T (2004) Chem Rev 104:3723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jiang J, Ng DKP (2009) Acc Chem Res 42:79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rio Y, Rodriguez-Morgade MS, Torres T (2008) Org Biomol Chem 6:1877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    de la Torre G, Claessens CG, Torres T (2007) Chem Commun 2000Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bottari G, Gonzalez-Rodriguez D (2009) J Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 13:624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rodriguez-Morgade MS, de la Torre G, Torres T (2003) In: Kadish KM, Smith KM, Guilard R (eds) Porphyrin handbook, vol 15. Academic, San Diego, p 125Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Claessens CG, Hahn U, Torres T (2008) Chem Rec 8:75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    de la Torre G, Claessens CG, Torres T (2000) Eur J Org Chem 2821Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hall TW, Greenberg S, McArthur CR, Khouw B, Leznoff CC (1982) Nouv J Chim 6:653Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leznoff CC, Hall TW (1982) Tetrahedron Lett 23:3023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wöhrle D, Krawczyk G (1986) Polym Bull 15:193Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leznoff CC, Snirskaya P, Khouw B, Cerny RL, Seymour P, Lever ABP (1991) J Org Chem 56:82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hirth A, Sobbi AK, Wöhrle D (1997) J Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 1:275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kobayashi N, Kondo R, Nakajima S, Osa T (1990) J Am Chem Soc 112:9640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhao Z, Nyokong T, Maree MD (2005) Dalton Trans 3732Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhao Z, Poon C-T, Wong W-K, Wong W-Y, Tam H-L, Cheah K-W, Xie T, Wang D (2008) Eur J Inorg Chem 119Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xu H, Ng DKP (2008) Inorg Chem 47:7921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cammidge AN, Berber G, Chambrier I, Hough PW, Cook MJ (2005) Tetrahedron 61:4067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ermilov EA, Tannert S, Werncke T, Choi MTM, Ng DKP, Röder B (2006) Chem Phys 328:428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leng X, Choi C-F, Lo P-C, Ng DKP (2007) Org Lett 9:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leng X, Ng DKP (2007) Eur J Inorg Chem 4615Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tannert S, Ermilov EA, Vogel JO, Choi MTM, Ng DKP, Röder B (2007) J Phys Chem B 111:8053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kojima T, Honda T, Ohkubo K, Shiro M, Kusukawa T, Fukuda T, Kobayashi N, Fukuzumi S (2008) Angew Chem Int Ed 47:6712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rodriguez-Morgade MS, Torres T, Atienza-Castellanos C, Guldi DM (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:5145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gao B, Li Y, Su J, Tian H (2007) Supramol Chem 19:207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    El-Khouly ME, Rogers LM, Zandler ME, Gadde S, Fujitsuka M, Ito O, D’Souza F (2003) Chem Phys Chem 4:474Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim KN, Choi CS, Kay K-Y (2005) Tetrahedron Lett 46:6791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen Y, El-Khouly ME, Sasaki M, Araki Y, Ito O (2005) Org Lett 7:1613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Doyle JJ, Ballesteros B, de la Torre G, McGovern DA, Kelly JM, Torres T, Blau WJ (2006) Chem Phys Lett 428:307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ballesteros B, de la Torre G, Torres T, Hug GL, Rahman GMA, Guldi DM (2006) Tetrahedron 62:2097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Troshin PA, Koeppe R, Peregudov AS, Peregudova SM, Egginger M, Lyubovskaya RN, Sariciftci NS (2007) Chem Mater 19:5363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    El-Khouly ME, Kang ES, Kay K-Y, Choi CS, Aaraki Y, Ito O (2007) Chem Eur J 13:2854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Martin-Gomis L, Ohkubo K, Fernandez-Lazaro F, Fukuzumi S, Sastre-Santos A (2007) Org Lett 9:3441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martin-Gomis L, Ohkubo K, Fernandez-Lazaro F, Fukuzumi S, Sastre-Santos A (2008) J Phys Chem C 112:17694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bottari G, Diaz-Diaz D, Torres T (2006) J Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 10:1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Martinez-Diaz MV, Quintiliani M, Torres T (2008) Synlett 1Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ali H, van Lier JE (1997) Tetrahedron Lett 38:1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Maya EM, Vazquez P, Torres T (1997) Chem Commun 1175Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Maya E M, Vazquez P, Torres T (1999) Chem Eur J 5:2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Garcia-Frutos EM, O’Flaherty SM, Maya EM, de la Torre G, Blau W, Vazquez P, Torres T (2003) J Mater Chem 13:749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bottari G, Torres T (2004) Chem Commun 2668Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jimenez AJ, Spänig F, Rodriguez-Morgade MS, Ohkubo K, Fukuzumi S, Guldi DM, Torres T (2007) Org Lett 9:2481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gonzalez-Cabello A, Vazquez P, Torres T, Guldi DM (2003) J Org Chem 68:8635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bottari G, Olea D, Gomez-Navarro C, Zamora F, Gomez-Herrero, Torres T (2008) Angew Chem Int Ed 47:2026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Quintiliani M, Kahnt A, Wölfle T, Hieringer W, Vazquez P, Görling A, Guldi DM, Torres T (2008) Chem Eur J 14:3765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Quintiliani M, Kahnt A, Vazquez P, Guldi DM, Torres T (2008) J Mater Chem 18:1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gonzalez-Rodriguez D, Claessens CG, Torres T, Liu S, Echegoyen L, Vila N, Nonell S (2005) Chem Eur J 11:3881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yang SI, Li J, Cho HS, Kim D, Bocian DF, Holten D, Lindsey JS (2000) J Mater Chem 10:283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Morisue M, Kobuke Y (2008) Chem Eur J 73:8219Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lo P-C, Leng X, Ng DKP (2007) Coord Chem Rev 251:2334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kobuke Y (2006) Eur J Inorg Chem 2333Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kameyama K, Satake A, Kobuke Y (2004) Tetrahedron Lett 45:7617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sutton JM, Boyle RW (2001) Chem Commun 2014Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ambroise A, Wagner RW, Rao PD, Riggs JA, Hascoat P, Diers JR, Seth J, Lammi RK, Bocian DF, Holten D, Lindsey JS (2001) Chem Mater 13:1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pinzon JR, Cardona CM, Herranz MA, Plonska-Brzezinska ME, Palkar A, Athans AJ, Martin N, Ropdriguez-Fortea A, Poblet JM, Bottari G, Torres T, Gayathri SS, Guldi DM, Echegoyen L (2009) Chem Eur J 15:864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pereira AMVM, Soares ARM, Calvete MJF, de la Torre G (2009) J Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 13:419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Soares ARM, Martinez-Diaz MV, Bruckner A, Pereira AMVM, Toma JPC, Alonso CMA, Faustino MAF, Neves MGPMS, Toma AC, Silva AMS, Cavaleiro JAS, Torres T, Guldi DM (2007) Org Lett 9:1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gonzalez-Cabello A, Vazquez P, Torres T (2001) J Organomet Chem 637–639:751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Maya EM, Garcia C, Vazquez P, Torres T, Gobbi L, Diederich F, Pyo S, Echegoyen L (2000) J Org Chem 65:823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cook MJ, Heeney MJ (2000) Chem Eur J 6:3958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Garcia-Frutos EM, Fernandez-Lazaro F, Maya EM, Vazquez P, Torres T (2000) J Org Chem 65:6841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cook MJ, Heeney MJ (2000) Chem Commun 969Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kahnt A, Quintiliani M, Vazquez P, Guldi DM, Torres T (2008) ChemSusChem 1:97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fortage J, Göransson E, Blart E, Becker H-C, Hammarström L, Odobel F (2007) Chem Commun 4629Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fortage J, Odobel F (2009) C R Chimie 12:437Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Miller MA, Lammi RK, Prathapan S, Holten D, Lindsey JS (2000) J Org Chem 65:6634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gouloumis A, Liu S-G, Vazquez P, Echegoyen L, Torres T (2001) Chem Commun 399Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gouloumis A, Gonzalez-Rodriguez D, Vazquez P, Torres T, Liu S, Echegoyen L, Ramey J, Hug GL, Guldi DM (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:12674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    de la Escosura A, Martinez-Diaz MV, Guldi DM, Torres T (2006) J Am Chem Soc 128:4112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    de la Escosura A, Martinez-Diaz MV, Barbera J, Torres T (2008) J Org Chem 73:1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    de la Escosura A, Martinez-Diaz MV, Thordarson P, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM, Torres T (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:12300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kahnt A, Guldi D M, de la Escosura A, Martinez-Diaz MV, Torres T (2008) J Mater Chem 18:77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Quintiliani M, Garcia-Frutos EM, Gouloumis A, Vazquez P, Ledoux-Rak I, Zyss J, Claessens CG, Torres T (2005) Eur J Org Chem 3911Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gonzalez A, Vazquez P, Torres T (1999) Tetrahedron Lett 40:3263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gonzalez-Cabello A, Claessens CG, Martin-Fuch G, Ledoux-Rak I, Vazquez P, Zyss J, Agullo-Lopez F, Torres T (2003) Synth Met 137:1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Odobel F, Zabri H (2005) Inorg Chem 44:5600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ali H, van Lier JE (2009) Tetrahedron Lett 50:337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ali H, van Lier JE (2009) Tetrahedron Lett 50:1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gouloumis A, Liu S-G, Sastre A, Vazquez P, Echegoyen L, Torres T (2000) Chem Eur J 6:3600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Guldi DM, Gouloumis A, Vazquez P, Torres T, Georgakilas V, Prato M (2005) J Am Chem Soc 127:5811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Neugebauer H, Loi MA, Winder C, Sariciftci NS, Cerullo G, Gouloumis A, Vazquez P, Torres T (2004) Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 83:201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Guldi DM, Zilbermann I, Gouloumis A, Vazquez P, Torres T (2004) J Phys Chem B 108:18485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Loi MA, Denk P, Hoppe H, Neugebauer H, Meissner D, Winder C, Brabec C, Sariciftci NS, Gouloumis A, Vazquez P, Torres T (2003) Synth Met 137:1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Loi MA, Denk P, Hoppe H, Neugebauer H, Winder C, Meissner D, Brabec C, Sariciftci NS, Gouloumis A, Vazquez P, Torres T (2003) J Mater Chem 13:700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Guldi DM, Gouloumis A, Vazquez P, Torres T (2002) Chem Commun 2056Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fukuzumi S, Ohkubo K, Ortiz J, Gutierrez AM, Fernandez-Lazaro F, Sastre-Santos A (2005) Chem Commun 3814Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chen Y, Lin Y, El-Khouly ME, Zhuang X, Araki Y, Ito O, Zhang W (2007) Phys Chem Lett 111:16096Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fukuzumi S, Ohkubo K, Ortiz J, Gutierrez AM, Fernandez-Lazaro F, Sastre-Santos A (2008) J Phys Chem A 112:10744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Liu MO, Tai C-H, Hu AT (2004) J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 165:193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    de la Torre G, Blau W, Torres T (2003) Nanotechnol 14:765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ballesteros B, Campidelli S, de la Torre G, Ehli C, Guldi DM, Prato M, Torres T (2007) Chem Commun 2950Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ballesteros B, de la Torre G, Ehli C, Rahman GMA, Agullo-Rueda F, Guldi DM, Torres T (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:5061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yang Z, Pu H, Yuan J, Wan D, Liu Y (2008) Chem Phys Lett 465:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Campidelli S, Ballesteros B, Filorama A, Diaz Diaz D, de la Torre G, Torres T, Rahman GMA, Ehli C, Kiessling D, Werner F, Sgobba V, Guldi DM, Cioffi C, Prato M, Bourgoin J-P (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:11503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Huang W, Wang S, Liang R, Gong Q, Qiu W, Liu Y, Zhu D (2000) Chem Phys Lett 324:354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zhu P, Wang P, Qiu W, Liu Y, Ye C, Fang G, Song Y (2001) Appl Phys Lett 78:1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Isosomppi M, Tkachenko NV, Efimov A, Vahasalo H, Jukola J, Vainiotalo P, Lemmetyinen H (2006) Chem Phys Lett 430:36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lehtivuori H, Kumpulainen T, Efimov A, Lemmetyinen H, Kira A, Imahori H, Tkachenko NV (2008) J Phys Chem C 112:9896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Niemi M, Tkachenko NV, Efimov A, Lehtivuori H, Ohkubo K, Fukuzumi S, Lemmetyinen H (2008) J Phys Chem A 112:6884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lehtivuori H, Kumpulainen T, Hietala M, Efimov A, Lemmetyinen H, Kira A, Imahori H, Tkachenko NV (2009) J Phys Chem C 113:1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Martinez-Diaz MV, Fender NS, Rodriguez-Morgade MS, Gomez-Lopez M, Diederich F, Echegoyen L, Stoddart JF, Torres T (2002) J Mater Chem 12:2095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Guldi DM, Ramey J, Martinez-Diaz MV, de la Escosura A, Torres T, Da Ros T, Prato M (2002) Chem Commun 2774Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sessler JL, Jayawickramarajah J, Gouloumis A, Pantos GD, Torres T, Guldi DM (2006) Tetrahedron 62:2123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Torres T, Gouloumis A, Sanchez-Garcia D, Jayawickramarajah J, Seitz W, Guldi DM, Sessler JL (2007) Chem Commun 292Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Li X-Y, Ng DKP (2001) Tetrahedron Lett 42:305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sukeguchi D, Yoshiyama H, Shibata N, Nakamura S, Toru T, Hayashi Y, Soga T (2009) J Fluor Chem 130:361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Piechoki C, Simon J, Skoulious A, Guillon D, Weber P (1982) J Am Chem Soc 104:5245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Simon J, Bassoul P (1996) In: Leznoff CC, Lever ABP (eds) Phthalocyanines: properties and applications, vol 2. VCH Publishers, Cambridge, p 223Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Duro JA, de la Torre G, Barberá J, Serrano JL, Torres T (1996) Chem Mat 8:1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Eichhorn H, Bruce D, Wöhrle D (1998) Adv Mater 10:419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Maeda F, Hatsusaka K, Ohta K, Kimura M (2003) J Mater Chem 13:243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kimura M, Ueki H, Ohta K, Shirai H, Kobayashi N (2006) Langmuir 22:5051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Engelkamp H, Middlebeek S, Nolte RJM (1999) Science 284:785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Samori P, Engelkamp H, de Witte P, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM, Rabe JP (2001) Angew Chem Int Ed 40:2348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kobayashi N (2002) Coord Chem Rev 219:99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Thordarson P, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM (2003) In: Kadish KM, Smith KM, Guilard R (eds) The porphyrin handbook, vol. 18. Academic, San Diego, p 281Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kobayashi N, Nishiyama Y (1986) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 1462Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Koray AR, Ahsen V, Bekaroglu O (1986) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 932Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sielcken OE, Van de Kuil LA, Drenth W, Nolte RJM (1986) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 1232Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kobayashi N, Lever, ABP (1987) J Am Chem Soc 109:7433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sielcken OE, van Tilborg MM, Roks MF, Hendriks R, Drenth W, Nolte RJM (1987) J Am Chem Soc 109:4261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sielcken OE, Vandekuil LA, Drenth W, Schoonman J, Nolte RJM (1990) J Am Chem Soc 112:3086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Elemans JAAW, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM (2003) J Mater Chem 13:2661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sheng N, Zhang Y, Xu H, Bao M, Sun X, Jiang J (2007) Eur J Inorg Chem 3268Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sly J, Kasák P, Gomar-Nadal E, Rovira C, Górriz L, Thordarson P, Amabilino DB, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM (2005) Chem Commun 1255Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rai R, Saxena A, Ohira A, Fujiki M (2005) Langmuir 21:3957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chen P, Ma X, Liu M (2007) Macromolecules 40:4780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Li X, Links LE, Rybtchinsky B, Wasielewski MR (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:10810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Guan Y, Yu SH, Antonietti M, Böttcher C, Faul CFJ (2005) Chem Eur J 11:305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kimura M, Ueki H, Ohta K, Hanabusa K, Shirai H, Kobayashi N (2004) Chem Eur J 10:4954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lee PPS, Ngai T, Huang JD, Wu C, Fong WP, Ng DKP (2003) Macromolecules 36:7527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ogawa K, Kobuke Y (2000) Angew Chem Int Ed 39:4070Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Takahashi R, Kobuke Y (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:2372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ozeki H, Nomoto A, Ogawa K, Kobuke Y, Murakami M, Hosoda K, Ohtani M, Nakashima S, Miyasaka H, Okada T (2004) Chem Eur J 10:6393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kameyama K, Morisue M, Satake A, Kobuke Y (2005) Angew Chem Int Ed 44:4763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Morisue M, Kobuke Y (2008) Chem Eur J 14:4993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    McKeown NB (2000) J Mater Chem 10:1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wöhrle D (2001) Macromol Rapid Comm 22:68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Wöhrle D, Schnurpfeil G (2003) In: Kadish KM, Smith KM, Guilard R (eds) The porphyrin handbook, vol 17. Academic, San Diego, p 177Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Huang C, Zhang Q (2005) Adv Mater 17:1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Choi, S, Hong, SH, Cho SH, Park S, Park SM, Kim O, Ree M (2008) Adv Mater 20:1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Trombach N, Hild O, Schlettwein, Wöhrle D (2002) J Mater Chem 12:879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Biyiklioglu Z, Kantekin H (2008) Polyhedron 27:1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kantekin H, Dilber G, Biyiklioglu Z (2008) J Organomet Chem 693:1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Bilgin A, Mendi A, Yildiz U (2006) Polymer 47:8462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Bilgin A, Yagci C, Mendi A, Yildiz U (2008) J Appl Polym Sci 110:2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    McKeown NB, Makhseed S, Budd PM (2002) Chem Commun 2780Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    McKeown NB, Budd PM, Msayib KJ, Ghanem BS, Kingston HJ, Tattershall CE, Makhseed S, Reynolds KJ, Fritsch D (2005) Chem Eur J 11:2610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mackintosh HJ, Budd PM, McKeown NB (2008) J Mater Chem 18:573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Schultz H, Lehmann H, Rein M, Hanack M (1991) In: Buchler JW (ed) Struct Bond 74. Springer, Berlin, p 41Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hanack M, Lang M (1994) Adv Mater 6:819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Samori P, Engelkamp H, De Witte PAJ, Rowan AE, Nolte RJM, Rabe JP (2005) Adv Mater 17:1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kimura M, Wada K, Iwashima Y, Ohta K, Hanabusa K, Shirai H, Kobayashi N (2003) Chem Commun 2504Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Drager AS, Zangmeister RAP, Armstrong NR, O’Brien DF (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:3595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kimura M, Wada K, Ohta K, Hanabusa K, Shirai H, Kobayashi N (2001) Macromolecules 34:4706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kimura M, Ueki H, Ohta K, Hanabusa K, Shirai H, Kobayashi N (2002) Langmuir 18:7683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    de la Escosura A, Martinez-Diaz MV, Torres T, Grubbs RH, Guldi DM, Neugebauer H, Zinder C, Drees M, Sariciftci NS (2006) Chem Asian J 1–2:148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Martinez-Diaz M, Esperanza S, de la Escosura A, Catellani M, Yunus S, Luzzati S, Torres T (2003) Tetrahedron Lett 44:8475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Chen Y, Hanack M, O’Flaherty S, Bernd G, Zeug A, Röder B, Blau WJ (2003) Macromolecules 36:3786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Brewis M, Clarkson GJ, Helliwell M, Holder AM, McKeown NB (2000) Chem Eur J 6:4630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Kernag CA, McGrath DV (2003) Chem Commun 1048Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Brewis M, Helliwell M, McKeown NB (2003) Tetrahedron 59:3863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Nishida M, Momotake A, Shinohara Y, Nishimura Y, Arai T (2007) J Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 11:448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Brewis M, Clarkson GJ, Goddard V, Helliwell M, Holder AM, McKeown NB (1998) Angew Chem Int Ed 37:1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Leclaire J, Dagiral R, Fery-Forgues S, Coppel Y, Donnadieu B, Caminade AM, Majoral JP (2005) J Am Chem Soc 127:15762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Leclaire J, Dagiral R, Pla-Quintana A, Caminade AM, Majoral JP (2007) Eur J Inorg Chem 2890Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Uchiyama T, Ishii K, Nonomura T, Kobayashi N, Isoda S (2003) Chem Eur J 9:5757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Jang WD, Nakagishi Y, Nishiyama N, Kawauchi S, Morimoto Y, Kikuchi M, Kataoka K (2006) J Control Release 113:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Jang WD, Nishiyama N, Kataoka K (2007) Supramol Chem 19:309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Guo M, Yan X, Goodson III T (2008) Adv Mater 20:4167Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Lee TW, Kwon Y, Park JJ, Pu L, Hayakawa T, Kakimoto M (2007) Macromol Rapid Comm 28:1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Yoshimoto S, Itaya K (2007) J Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 11:313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Martinez-Diaz MV, Bottari G (2009) J Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 13:471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Lippel PH, Wilson RJ, Miller MD, Woell C, Chiang S (1989) Phys Rev Lett 62:171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Lu X, Hipps KW, Wang XD, Mazur U (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:7197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Hipps KW, Lu X, Wang XD, Mazur U (1996) J Phys Chem 100:11207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Lu X, Hipps KW (1997) J Phys Chem B 101:5391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Barlow DE, Hipps KW (2000) J Phys Chem B 104:5993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Chizhov I, Scoles G, Kahn A (2000) Langmuir 16:4358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Koudia M, Abel M, Maurel C, Bliek A, Catalin D, Mossoyan M, Mossoyan J-C, Porte L (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:10058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Abel M, Oison V, Koudia M, Maurel C, Katan C, Porte L (2006) ChemPhysChem 7:82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Samuely T, Liu S-X, Wintjes N, Haas M, Decurtins S, Jung TA, Stohr M (2008) J Phys Chem C 112:6139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Yoshimoto S, Tada A, Suto K, Itaya K (2003) J Phys Chem B 107:5836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Hipps KW, Scudiero L, Barlow DE, Cooke MP, Jr. (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:2126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Scudiero L, Hipps KW, Barlow DE (2003) J Phys Chem B 107:2903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Suto K, Yoshimoto S, Itaya K (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:14976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Yoshimoto S, Higa N, Itaya K (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:8540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Suto K, Yoshimoto S, Itaya K (2006) Langmuir 22:10766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Stohr M, Wagner T, Gabriel M, Weyers B, Moller R (2001) Adv Funct Mater 11:175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Calmettes B, Nagarajan S, Gourdon A, Abel M, Porte L, Coratger R (2008) Angew Chem Int Ed 47:6994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Yoshimoto S, Honda Y, Ito O, Itaya K (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Yoshimoto S, Suto K, Itaya K, Kobayashi N (2003) Chem Commun 2174Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Yoshimoto S, Suto K, Tada A, Kobayashi N, Itaya K (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:8020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Yang Z-Y, Gan L-H, Lei S-B, Wan L-J, Wang C, Jiang J-Z (2005) J Phys Chem B 109:19859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Klymchenko AS, Sleven J, Binnemans K, De Feyter S (2006) Langmuir 22:723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Takami T, Arnold DP, Fuchs AV, Will GD, Goh R, Waclawik ER, Bell JM, Weiss PS, Sugiura K, Liu W, Jiang J (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Takeuchi M, Imada T, Shinkai S (1998) Angew Chem Int Ed 37:2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Sugasaki A, Ikeda M, Takeuchi M, Shinkai S (2000) Angew Chem Int Ed 39:3839Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Shinkai S, Ikeda M, Sugasaki A, Takeuchi M (2001) Acc Chem Res 34:494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Tashiro K, Konishi K, Aida T (2000) J Am Chem Soc 122:7921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Yoshimoto S, Sawaguchi T, Su W, Jiang J, Kobayashi N (2007) Angew Chem Int Ed 46:1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Lei S-B, Deng K, Yang Y-L, Zeng Q-D, Wang C, Jiang J-Z (2008) Nano Lett 8:1836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Jiang P, Ma X, Ning Y, Song C, Chen X, Jia J-F, Xue Q-K (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:7790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Wang M, Yang Y-L, Deng K, Wang C (2007) Chem Phys Lett 439:76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Gomez-Segura J, Diez-Perez I, Ishikawa N, Nakano M, Veciana J, Ruiz-Molina D (2006) Chem Commun 2866Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Zhi L, Gorelik T, Wu J, Kolb U, Müllen K (2005) J Am Chem Soc 127:12792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Tong WY, Djurisic AB, Xie MH, Ng ACM, Cheung KY, Chan WK, Leung YH, Lin HW, Gwo S (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:17406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Mbenkum BN, Barrena E, Zhang X, Kelsch M, Dosch H (2006) Nano Lett 6:2852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Lv W, Zhang X, Lu J, Zhang Y, Li X, Jiang J (2008) Eur J Inorg Chem 2008:4255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Wang X, Liu Y, Zhu D (2001) Chem Phys Lett 340:419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Wang XB, Liu YQ, Zhu DB (2002) Adv Mater 14:165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Zhi L, Gorelik T, Friedlein R, Wu J, Kolb U, Salaneck WR, Müllen K (2005) Small 1:798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    McKeown NB, Makhseed S, Msayib KJ, Ooi L-L, Helliwell M, Warren JE (2005) Angew Chem Int Ed 44:7546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Maksheed S, Ibrahim F, Samuel J, Helliwell M, Warren JE, Bezzu CG, McKeown NB (2008) Chem Eur J 14:4810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Cao L, Chen HZ, Zhou HB, Zhu L, Sun JZ, Zhang XB, Xu JM, Wang M (2003) Adv Mater 15:909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Hatton RA, Blanchard NP, Stolojan V, Miller AJ, Silva SRP (2007) Langmuir 23:6424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Bao Z, Lovinger AJ, Dodabalapur A (1997) Adv Mater 9:42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Eriko M, Taniguchi M, Kawai T (2005) Appl Phys Lett 86:143513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Ofuji M, Ishikawa K, Takezoe H (2005) Appl Phys Lett 86:062114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Zhang J, Wang J, Wang H, Yan D (2004) Appl Phys Lett 84:142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Zeis R, Siegrist T, Kloc C (2005) Appl Phys Lett 86:022103/1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Liu Y, Hu W, Qiu W, Xu Y, Zhou S, Zhu D (2001) Sens Actuators B Chem 80:202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Su W, Jiang J, Xiao K, Chen Y, Zhao Q, Yu G, Liu Y (2005) Langmuir 21:6527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Chen Y, Su W, Bai M, Jiang J, Li X, Liu Y, Wang L, Wang S (2005) J Am Chem Soc 127:15700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Opitz A, Bronner M, Brutting W (2007) J Appl Phys 101:063709/1Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Opitz A, Bronner M, Bruetting W, Himmerlich M, Schaefer JA, Krischok S (2007) Appl Phys Lett 90:212112/1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    de Saja JA, Rodriguez-Mendez ML (2005) Adv Colloid Interface Sci 116:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Snow AW, Barger WR (1989) In: Leznoff CC, Lever ABP (eds) Phthalocyanines: properties and applications, vol 1. Wiley, New York, p 341Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Bohrer FI, Sharoni A, Colesniuc C, Park J, Schuller IK, Kummel AC, Trogler WC (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:5640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Hu W, Liu Y, Liu S, Zhu D (1998) Thin Solid Films 324:285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Hsieh JC, Liu CJ, Ju YH (1998) Thin Solid Films 322:98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Li X, Shen S, Zhou Q, Xu H, Jiang D, Lu A (1998) Thin Solid Films 324:274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Nicolau M, del Rey B, Torres T, Mingotaud C, Delhaes P, Cook MJ, Thorpe SC (1999) Synth Met 102:1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Armand F, Perez H, Fouriaux S, Araspin O, Pradeau JP, Claessens CG, Maya EM, Vazquez P, Torres T (1999) Synth Met 102:1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Lee YL, Tsai WC, Maa JR (2001) Appl Surf Sci 173:352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Liu CJ, Shih JJ, Ju YH (2004) Sens Actuators B Chem 99:344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Generosi A, Paci B, Albertini VR, Perfetti P, Paoletti AM, Pennesi G, Rossi G, Caminiti R (2005) Appl Phys Lett 87:181904/1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Generosi A, Paci B, Rossi Albertini V, Perfetti P, Pennesi G, Paoletti AM, Rossi G, Capobianchi A, Caminiti R (2005) Appl Phys Lett 86:114106/1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Bohrer FI, Colesniuc CN, Park J, Schuller IK, Kummel AC, Trogler WC (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:3712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Muzikante I, Parra V, Dobulans R, Fonavs E, Latvels J, Bouvet M (2007) Sensors 7:2984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Ding X, Xu H, Zhang L, Jiang D, Lu A (1999) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 337:481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Palomares E, Vilar R, Durrant JR (2004) Chem Commun 362Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Sessler JL, Melfi PJ, Seidel D, Gorden AEV, Ford DK, Palmer PD, Tait CD (2004) Tetrahedron 60:11089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Palomares E, Martinez-Diaz MV, Torres T, Coronado E (2006) Adv Funct Mater 16:1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Mortimer RJ (1997) Chem Soc Rev 26:147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Silver J, Lukes P, Hey P, Ahmet MT (1991) J Mater Chem 1:881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Silver J, Lukes P, Hey P, Ahmet MT (1992) J Mater Chem 2:841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Rodriguez-Morgade MS, Planells M, Torres T, Ballester P, Palomares E (2008) J Mater Chem 18:176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Hohnholz D, Steinbrecher S, Hanack M (2000) J Mol Struct 521:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Choe Y, Park SY, Park DW, Kim W (2006) Macromol Res 14:38Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Yuan YY, Han S, Grozea D, Lu ZH (2006) Appl Phys Lett 88:093503/1Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Zafirov A, Rakovski S, Bakardjieva-Eneva J, Prahov L, Assenova L, Marrandino F (2002) PCT Int Appl WO 2002080158 A1Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Usami Y, Kakuta T, Ishida T, (2004) Eur Pat Appl EP 1434207 A2. Fuji Photo Film Company Ltd., JapanGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Hoppe H, Sariciftci NS (2004) J Mater Res 19:1924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Segura JL, Martin N, Guldi DM (2005) Chem Soc Rev 34:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Guenes S, Neugebauer H, Sariciftci NS (2007) Chem Rev 107:1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Thompson BC, Frechet JMJ (2008) Angew Chem Int Ed 47:58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    W Ma, Yang C, Gong X, Lee K, Heeger AJ (2005) Adv Funct Mater 15:1617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Li G, Shrotriya V, Huang J, Yao Y, Moriarty T, Emery K, Yang Y (2005) Nat Mater 4:864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Heutz S, Sullivan P, Sanderson BM, Schultes SM, Jones TS (2004) Sol Energ Mater Sol Cells 83:229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Sullivan P, Heutz S, Schultes SM, Jones TS (2004) Appl Phys Lett 84:1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Uchida S, Xue J, Rand BP, Forrest SR (2004) Appl Phys Lett 84:4218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Schultes SM, Sullivan P, Heutz S, Sanderson BM, Jones TS (2005) Mater Sci Eng C 25:858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Ltaief A, Ben Chaâbane R, Bouazizi A, Davenas J (2006) Mater Sci Eng C 26:344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Janssen AGF, Riedl T, Hamwi S, Johannes HH, Kowalsky W (2007) Appl Phys Lett 91:073519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Sullivan P, Jones TS, Ferguson AJ, Heutz S (2007) Appl Phys Lett 91:233114/1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Xue J, Uchida S, Rand BP, Forrest SR (2004) Appl Phys Lett 84:3013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Xue J, Uchida S, Rand BP, Forrest SR (2004) Appl Phys Lett 85:5757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Koeppe R, Troshin PA, Fuchsbauer A, Lyubovskaya RN, Sariciftci NS (2006) Fullerenes, Nanotubes, Carbon Nanostruct 14:441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Egginger M, Koeppe R, Meghdadi F, Troshin PA, Lyubovskaya RN, Meissner D, Sariciftci NS (2006) Proc SPIE – Int Soc Opt Eng 6192:61921Y/1Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Gouloumis A, de la Escosura A, Vazquez P, Torres T, Kahnt A, Guldi DM, Neugebauer H, Winder C, Drees M, Sariciftci NS (2006) Org Lett 8:5187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Nazeeruddin MK, De Angelis F, Fantacci S, Selloni A, Viscardi G, Liska P, Ito S, Takeru B, Grätzel M (2005) J Am Chem Soc 127:16835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Robertson N (2006) Angew Chem Int Ed 45:2338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Robertson N (2008) Angew Chem Int Ed 47:1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Nazeeruddin MK, Humphry-Baker R, Grätzel M, Murrer BA (1998) Chem Commun 719Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Palomares E, Martinez-Diaz MV, Haque SA, Torres T, Durrant JR (2004) Chem Commun 2112Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Morandeira A, Lopez-Duarte I, Martinez-Diaz MV, O’Regan BC, Shuttle C, Haji-Zainulabidin NA, Torres T, Palomares E, Durrant JR (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:9250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    O’Regan BC, Lopez-Duarte I, Martinez-Diaz MV, Forneli A, Albero J, Morandeira A, Palomares E, Torres T, Durrant JR (2008) J Am Chem Soc 130:2906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    He J, Benko G, Korodi F, Polivka T, Lomoth R, Akermark B, Sun L, Hagfeldt A, Sundstrom V (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:4922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Cid J-J, Yum J-H, Jang S-R, Nazeeruddin MK, Martinez-Ferrero E, Palomares E, Ko J, Grätzel M, Torres T (2007) Angew Chem Int Ed 46:8358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Reddy PY, Giribabu L, Lyness C, Snaith HJ, Vijaykumar C, Chandrasekharam M, Lakshmikantam M, Yum J-H, Kalyanasundaram K, Grätzel M, Nazeeruddin MK (2007) Angew Chem Int Ed 46:373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Yum JH, Jang SR, Humphry-Baker R, Grätzel M, Cid J-J, Torres T, Nazeeruddin MK (2008) Langmuir 24:5636CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gema de la Torre
    • 1
  • Giovanni Bottari
    • 1
  • Uwe Hahn
    • 1
  • Tomas Torres
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations