Wood Composite Adhesives



The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.


Propylene Carbonate Medium Density Fiberboard Formaldehyde Resin Oriented Strand Board Laminate Veneer Lumber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Camara Greiner E (2005) CEH Marketing Report Phenolic Resins, SRI ConsultingGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Camara Greiner E (2008) CEH Marketing Report Phenolic Resins, SRI ConsultingGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lewis G, Director Wood Products RISI (2007) N.A. Wood Products Markets React to Weak Residential Construction, FPS International Convention, June 12th 2007Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lewis G, Director Wood Products RISI (2008) North American Wood Panel Forecast, December 2008, <http://www.risiinfo.com/Marketing/forecasts/Excerpts/na_wood_panels.pdf. Accessed 28 January 2009>
  5. 5.
    As shown in Table (8.1) above, the lowest achievable formaldehyde emission from industrially produced boards is approximately as low as the emission of formaldehyde from wood that has only been subjected to a drying process; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation. Report to Congress on Indoor Air Quality, Volume II: Assessment and Control of Indoor Air Pollution, 1989 http://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/ria.nsf/vwDT/D46E72EA6527637F85256462006331B4. Accessed 28 January 2009
  6. 6.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer (2004) IARC Classifies Formaldehyde as Carcinogenic to Humans; Press Release# 153. http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2004/pr153.html. Accessed 18 September 2008
  7. 7.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation http://www.epa.gov/iaq/formalde.html. Accessed 20 September 2008
  8. 8.
    Heep W and Gomez Bueso J (2008) “AsWoodTM Resin System” Protein modified Resol resins for the low formaldehyde emissions panels, 9th Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites Symposium, 165–171Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Siempelkamp Maschinen-und Anlagenbau GmbH, Krefeld, Germany (2008) http://www.siempelkamp.com/Preheating.593.0.html. Accessed 22 September 2008
  10. 10.
    WOODWEB, Inc. Montrose, PA, USA (2008) <http://www.woodweb.com/knowledge_base/Bonding_with_Radio_Frequency_Heating.html. Accessed 22 October 2008>
  11. 11.
    Hayashi T (2009) Recent development on the processing technology for wood-based materials in Japan. Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI), http://www.ffpri.affrc.go.jp/labs/etj/hayashi/wc2000/wc01.htm. Accessed 3 February 2009
  12. 12.
    Dieffenbacher (2008) Eppingen, Germany. http://www.dieffenbacher.com/pdf/prospekte/Pressen_en_032007.pdf. Accessed 22 September 2008
  13. 13.
    Dieffenbacher (2008) Eppingen, Germany. http://www.dieffenbacher.com/pdf/prospekte/Flyer_EVOjet_EN_0208.pdf. Accessed 22 September 2008
  14. 14.
    Hyvönen A (2008) Latest development in gluing, 2008 Annual meeting of Engineered Wood Product Association of Australasia, November 10th, in Coloundra, Australia. http://www.paa.asn.au/library/presentations/2008/raute_ewpaa_agm_2008.pdf. Accessed 25 November 2008
  15. 15.
    Cone CN and Steinberg JM (1975) Rapidly-foamable fast-setting phenolic resin plywood glue. US 3905921Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lund E (1993) Alternative to plywood and lumber at home. NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MDGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barbu MC and Pieper O (2008) COST Action 49 International Workshop, Slovenia 2008, 34–51Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Madagascar Bamboo, Toamasina, Madagascar (2008) http://www.madagascarbamboo.com/english/product.html. Accessed 23 November 2008
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    TimTek, Clarkesville, Georgia, USA (2008) http://www.cfr.msstate.edu/timtek/. Accessed 25 November 2008
  21. 21.
    Higuchi M et al (2001) Condensation reactions of phenolic resins. 1. Kinetics and mechanisms of the base-catalyzed self-condensation of 2-hydroxymethylphenol. Polymer Journal 42(10):4563–4567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Higuchi M et al (2001) Kinetics and mechanisms of the condensation reactions of phenolic resins II. Base-catalyzed self-condensation of 4-hydroxymethylphenol. Polymer Journal 33(10):799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kamo N et al (2002), Condensation reactions of phenolic resins III: self-condensations of 2,4-dihydroxymethylphenol and 2,4,6-trihydroxymethylphenol (1). Journal Wood Science 48(6):491–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kamo N et al (2004) Condensation reactions of phenolic resins IV: self-condensation of 2,4-dihydroxymethylphenol and 2,4,6-trihydroxymethylphenol (2). Journal Wood Science 50(1):68–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kamo N et al (2007) Condensation reactions of phenolic resins. VI. Dependence of the molecular association of 2,4,6-trihydroxymethylphenol on the concentration in an aqueous alkaline medium. Journal Applied Polymer Science 103(5):2849–2854Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Park BD et al (1999) Differential scanning calorimetry of phenol-formaldehyde resins cure-accelerated by carbonates. Polymer Journal 40(7):1689–1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Park BD and Riedl B (2000) 13C-NMR Study on cure-accelerated phenol-formaldehyde resins with carbonates. Journal Applied Polymer Science 77(4):841–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kamo N et al (2004) Condensation reactions of phenolic resins V: cure-acceleration effects of propylene carbonate. Journal Wood Science 50(3):236–241Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kamo N et al (2006) Condensation reactions of phenolic resins VII: catalytic effect of sodium bicarbonate for the condensation of hydroxymethylphenols. Journal Wood Science 52(4):325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Conner AH, Lorenz LF, Hirth KC (2002) Accelerated cure of phenol-formaldehyde resins: studies with model compounds. Journal Applied Polymer Science 86(13):3256–3263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lei H, Pizzi A, Despres A, Pasch H, Du G (2006) Ester acceleration mechanisms in phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesives. Journal Applied Polymer Science 100(4):3075–3093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chang CD and Kononenko PK (1962) Sucrose-modified phenolic resins as plywood adhesives. Adhesives Age 5(7):36–40Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mudde JP (1980) Corn starch: a low-cost route to novolac resins. Modern Plastics, 57(2):69–74Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Christiansen AW (1985) Durable wood adhesives based on carbohydrates. Wood adhesives 1985, 211–226Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pezzoli S and Rossi G (1983) Concentrated aqueous solution of phenol and formaldehyde stable at low temperature process for preparing same. US 4370444Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Viswanathan T and Richardson T (1988) Thermosetting adhesive resins. US 4524164Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Conner AH and Lorenz LF (1986) Carbohydrate modified phenol-formaldehyde resins. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology 6(4):59–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Drury RL, Hipple BJ, Tippit PS, Dunn LB Jr. and Karcher LP (1990) The use of methyl glucoside in plywood adhesives, Wood Adhesives 1990 II 54–60Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Avery LP et al (1989) Methods of making and using adhesive resins and glue mixes. US H0000603Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Viswanathan T, Toland A and Liu R.-Q. (1995) Whey-based polyether polyols as modifiers of phenol-formaldehyde resins. Carbohydrate Polymer 28(3):203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pizzi A and Mittal KL (2003) Handbook of adhesive technology. Marcel Dekker, NY 27:574Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Trossa A and Pizzi A (2001) A no-aldehyde emission hardener for tannin-based wood adhesives for exterior panels. Holz Roh Werkstoff 59(4):266–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pizzi A, Roux DG (1978) The chemistry and development of tannin-based weather- and boil-proof cold-setting and fast-setting adhesives for wood. Journal Applied Polymer Science 22(7):1945–1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pizzi A and Stephanou A (1994) Fast vs. slow-reacting non-modified tannin extracts for exterior particleboard adhesives. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 52(4):218–222Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pizzi A and Stephanou A (1994) A 13C NMR study of polyflavonoid tannin adhesive intermediates. I. Noncolloidal performance determining rearrangements. Journal Applied Polymer Science 51(13):2109–2114Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kreibich RE, Hemingway RW and Nearn WT (1993) Application of honeymoon cold-set adhesive systems for structural end joints in North America. Forest Products Journal 43(7–8):45–48Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hemingway RW, Kreibich RE (1985). Condensed tannin-resorcinol adducts in laminating adhesives. Forest Products Journal 35(3):23–25Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pizzi A (1994) Advanced wood adhesives technology 5:192–198, Marcel Dekker, NYGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pizzi A and Mittal KL (2003) Handbook of adhesive technology 27: 579–584, Marcel Dekker, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Carneiro ACO, Vital BR, Pimenta AS, Marius R, Lucia D (2004) Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of eucalyptus grandis or eucalyptus pellita. Revista Árvore 28(5):715–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Von Leyser E, Pizzi A (1990) The formulation and commercialization of glulam pine tannin adhesives in Chile. Holz als Roh Werkstoff 48(1):25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hollis JW and Schoenherr JW (1981) Lignin-containing resin adhesive. US 4303562Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Klajsna B and Kopitovic S (1992) Lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resins as adhesives in the production of plywood. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff 50:282–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gardner DJ, Sellers Jr T (1986) Formulation of a lignin-based plywood adhesive from steam-exploded mixed hardwood lignin. Forest Products Journal 36(5):61–67Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sellers Jr T (1990) Survey reveals use of lignin as partial substitute for phenol. Panel World, 31(5):26–29, 44Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Roffael E, Dix B (1991) Lignin and lignosulphonate in non-conventional bonding- an overview. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff 49:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Doering GA (1993) Lignin modified phenol-formaldehyde resins. US 5202403Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ren C, Chen K, Shi S, Hu H (1999) Sulfur modified birch Kraft lignin as a component in plywood resins. Huanjing Huaxue 18(5):464–470Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vázquez G, Freire S, Rodríguez-Bona C, González J, Antorrena G (1999) Structures, and reactivities with formaldehyde, of some acetosolv pine lignin. Journal Wood Chemistry and Technology 19(4): 357–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sellers Jr T, Wooten AL, Tahir P, Cook PM (1990) Organosolv lignin-modified phenolics resins. Wood Adhesives 1990 II:35–39Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gramstad T and Sandstroem J (1969) Hydrogen bonding. XVIII. Thioamides and nitriles acceptors in hydrogen bond formation and a discussion of solvent shifts in electronic spectra. Journal Spectrochimia Acta Part A, 25(1):31–38Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pizzi A (1994) Advanced wood adhesives technology, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York 4:126–127Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zhao C, Pizzi A, and Garnier S(1999) Fast advancement and hardening acceleration of low-condensation alkaline PF resins by esters and copolymerized urea. Journal Applied Polymer Science 74(2):359–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zhao C, Pizzi A, Kühn A and Garnier S (2000) Fast advancement and hardening acceleration of low condensation alkaline phenol-formaldehyde resins by esters and copolymerized urea. II. Esters during resin reaction and effect of guanidine salts. Journal Applied Polymer Science 77(2):249–259Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kim MG, Watt C, Davis CR (1996) Effects of urea addition to phenol-formaldehyde resin binders for oriented strandboards. Journal of Wood Chemistry Technology 16:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Scopelitis E and Pizzi A (1993) Urea-resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives of low resorcinol content. Journal Applied Polymer Science 48:2135–2146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tomita B and Hse CY (1992) Cocondensation of urea with methylolphenols in acidic conditions. Journal Polymer Science 30(8):1615–1624Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tomita B and Hse CY (1993) Syntheses and structural Analyses of cocondensed resins from urea and methylolphenols. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39:1276–1284Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tomita B, Yoshida Y and Hse CY (1993) Kinetics on cocondensation of phenol and urea. Adhesive technology and bonded tropical wood products. Taiwan, China: Taiwan Forestry Research Institute: 71–83Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tomita B, Ohyama M Itoh A, Doi K and Hse CY (1994) Analysis of curing process and thermal properties of phenol-urea-formaldehyde co-condensed resins. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 40:170–175Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tomita B, Ohyama M and Hse CY (1994) Synthesis of phenol-urea-formaldehyde cocondensed resins from UF-concentrate and phenol. Holzforschung 48:522–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ohyama M, Tomita B and Hse CY (1995) Curing property and plywood adhesive performance of resol-type phenol-urea-formaldehyde cocondensed resins. Holzforschung 49:87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pizzi A (1994) Advanced wood adhesives technology, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York 7:248–250Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Scopelitis E and Pizzi A (1993) The chemistry and development of branched PRF wood adhesives of low resorcinol content. Journal Applied Polymer Science 47:351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Roy C et al (2000) Process for the production of phenolic-rich pyrolysis oils for use in making phenol-formaldehyde resol resins. WO 0044699 A1Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wang XM (2002) Performance of pyrolysis oil-based wood adhesives in OSB. Forest Products Journal 52(4):31–38Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Amen-Chen C et al (2002) Softwood bark pyrolysis oil-PF resols. Part 1. Resin synthesis and OSB mechanical properties. Holzforschung 56(2):167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Amen-Chen C et al (2002) Softwood bark pyrolysis oil-PF resols. Part 2. Thermal analysis by DSC and TH. Holzforschung 56(3):273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rosthauser JW and Detlefsen WD (2001) Mixed PMDI/resole resin binders for the production of wood composite products. US 6214265Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rosthauser JW and Schmelzer HG (2001) Mixed PMDI/solid novolac resin binders for the production of wood composite products. US 6294117Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rosthauser JW (2001) Extended polymethylene poly (phenylisocyanate) resin binders for the production of wood composite products. US 6224800Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hsu WE (2001) Adhesive systems and products formed using same and methods for producing said adhesive systems and products. US 6297313Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zheng J, Fox SC, Frazier CE (2004) Rheological, wood penetration, and fracture performance studies of PF/pMDI hybrid resins. Forest Products Journal 54:74–81Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Riedlinger D, Frazier C (2008) Morphological analysis of PF/pMDI hybrid wood adhesives. Journal Adhesion Science and Technology 22(12):1197–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Yozo S (1998) Phenolic resin adhesive for wood. JP 10306271Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Miller TR and Rosthauser JW (2002) Aqueous mixed pMDI/phenolic resin binders for the production of wood composite products. US 6416696Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Miller TR et al (2002) Hybrid phenol-formaldehyde and polymeric isocyanate based adhesive and methods of synthesis and use. US 6478998Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Zheng J et al (2007) Process for making wood laminates using fast setting adhesives at ambient temperature. US 2007/0102108 A1Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Griffith W (2006) ITP Forest Products: Rapid, low temperature electron-beam, x-ray, and gamma ray curable resins for wood composites. Laboratory, O. R. N., Ed. US Department of EnergyGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Heinemann C (2006) ITP Forest Products: Novel isocyanate-reactive adhesives for structural wood-based composites. University, V. P. I. a. S., Ed. US Department of EnergyGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    He G, Riedl B (2004) Curing kinetics of phenol formaldehyde resin and wood-resin interactions in the presence of wood substrates. Wood Science and Technology 38(1):69–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    He G and Yan N (2004) 13C NMR study on structure, composition and curing behavior of phenol-urea-formaldehyde resole resins. Journal Polymer 45(20):6813–6822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Krug D et al (2003) Binder for manufacturing timber products and binding of wood and timber products. EP 1318000Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    (http://www.heartlandresource.com/ accessed 22 may 2009)
  95. 95.
    Li K (2001) Formaldehyde-free lignocellulosic adhesives and composites made from the adhesives. US 7252735Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wescott JM and Frihart CR (2008) Water-resistant vegetable protein adhesive dispersion compositions. US 7345136Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kuo M et al (2001) Soybean-based adhesive resins and composite products utilizing such adhesives. US 6306997Google Scholar
  98. 98.
  99. 99.
  100. 100.
    Evers LB et al (2008) Oriented strand boards. US 7422787Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DyneaLillestrømNorway
  2. 2.Virginia Polytechnic InstituteBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations