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Time-of-Flight 3-D Endoscopy

  • Conference paper

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNIP,volume 5761)


This paper describes the first accomplishment of the Time-of-Flight (ToF) measurement principle via endoscope optics. The applicability of the approach is verified by in-vitro experiments. Off-the-shelf ToF camera sensors enable the per-pixel, on-chip, real-time, marker-less acquisition of distance information. The transfer of the emerging ToF measurement technique to endoscope optics is the basis for a new generation of ToF rigid or flexible 3-D endoscopes. No modification of the endoscope optic itself is necessary as only an enhancement of illumination unit and image sensors is necessary. The major contribution of this paper is threefold: First, the accomplishment of the ToF measurement principle via endoscope optics; second, the development and validation of a complete calibration and post-processing routine; third, accomplishment of extensive in-vitro experiments. Currently, a depth measurement precision of 0.89 mm at 20 fps with 3072 3-D points is achieved.


  • Minimally Invasive Surgery
  • Digital Holography
  • Operation Area
  • Porcine Stomach
  • Endoscope Optic

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

The authors gratefully acknowledge funding of the Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT) by the German National Science Foundation (DFG) in the framework of the excellence initiative.


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© 2009 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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Penne, J. et al. (2009). Time-of-Flight 3-D Endoscopy. In: Yang, GZ., Hawkes, D., Rueckert, D., Noble, A., Taylor, C. (eds) Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2009. MICCAI 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 5761. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-04267-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-04268-3

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)