Skip to main content

Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention

Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER,volume 186)

Abstract

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in women. This chapter considers epidemiologic evidence regarding the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk from 73 studies conducted around the world. Across these studies there was a 25% average risk reduction amongst physically active women as compared to the least active women. The associations were strongest for recreational activity, for activity sustained over the lifetime or done after menopause, and for activity that is of moderate to vigorous intensity and performed regularly. There is also some evidence for a stronger effect of physical activity amongst postmenopausal women, women who are normal weight, have no family history of breast cancer, and are parous. It is likely that physical activity is associated with decreased breast cancer risk via multiple interrelated biologic pathways that may involve adiposity, sex hormones, insulin resistance, adipokines, and chronic inflammation. Future research should include prospective observational epidemiologic studies relating proposed biomarkers to breast cancer risk and also randomized controlled trials to examine how physical activity influences the proposed biomarkers. Exercise trials will provide more clarity regarding the appropriate type, dose, and timing of activity that relate to breast cancer risk reduction.

Keywords

  • Breast Cancer
  • Physical Activity
  • Postmenopausal Woman
  • Breast Cancer Risk
  • Increase Breast Cancer Risk

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-04231-7_2
  • Chapter length: 30 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-04231-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   299.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   299.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 2.1
Fig. 2.2
Fig. 2.3
Fig. 2.4
Fig. 2.5
Fig. 2.6
Fig. 2.7
Fig. 2.8
Fig. 2.9
Fig. 2.10
Fig. 2.11
Fig. 2.12

References

  • Adams-Campbell LL, Rosenberg L, Rao RS et al (2001) Strenuous physical activity and breast cancer risk in African-American women. J Natl Med Assoc 93:267–275

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Atkinson C, Lampe JW, Tworoger SS et al (2004) Effects of a moderate intensity exercise intervention on estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 13:868–874

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre (2009) Breast cancer in Australia: An overview. Cancer series no. 50, Cat. no. CAN 46, Canberra (in press)

    Google Scholar 

  • Balducci S, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A et al (2009) Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is dependent on exercise modalities and independent of weight loss. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2009.04.015

    Google Scholar 

  • Balkwill F (2006) TNF-alpha in promotion and progression of cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev 25:409–416

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barb D, Williams CJ, Neuwirth AK et al (2007) Adiponectin in relation to malignancies: A review of existing basic research and clinical evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 86:s858–s866

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bardia A, Hartmann LC, Vachon CM et al (2006) Recreational physical activity and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer based on hormone receptor status. Arch Intern Med 166: 2478–2483

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bernstein L (2009) Exercise and breast cancer prevention. Curr Oncol Rep 11:490–496

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bernstein L, Patel AV, Ursin G et al (2005) Lifetime recreational exercise activity and breast cancer risk among black women and white women. J Natl Cancer Inst 97:1671–1679

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bertone-Johnson ER, Tworoger SS, Hankinson SE (2009) Recreational physical activity and steroid hormone levels in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 170:1095–1104

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bonser AM, Garcia-Webb P (1984) C-peptide measurement: Methods and clinical utility. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 19:297–352

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Breslow RA, Ballard-Barbash R, Munoz K et al (2001) Long-term recreational physical activity and breast cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I epidemiologic follow-up study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 10:805–808

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Calle EE, Murphy TK, Rodriguez C et al (1998) Occupation and breast cancer mortality in a prospective cohort of US women. Am J Epidemiol 148:191–197

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell KL, McTiernan A (2007) Exercise and biomarkers for cancer prevention studies. J Nutr 137:161S–169S

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell KL, Westerlind KC, Harber VJ et al (2007) Effects of aerobic exercise training on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 16:731–739

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell PT, Wener MH, Sorensen B et al (2008) Effect of exercise on in vitro immune function: A 12-month randomized, controlled trial among postmenopausal women. J Appl Physiol 104: 1648–1655

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell PT, Campbell KL, Wener MH et al (2009) A yearlong exercise intervention decreases CRP among obese postmenopausal women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:1533–1539

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Canadian Cancer Society (2009) Canadian Cancer Statistics 2009. Toronto

    Google Scholar 

  • Cancer Research UK (2009) Breast cancer – UK incidence statistics. CancerStats http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/breast/incidence/index.htm#source5

  • Carpenter CL, Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A et al (2003) Effect of family history, obesity and exercise on breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer 106:96–102

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cauley JA, Gutai JP, Kuller LH et al (1989) The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 129:1120–1131

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cerhan JR, Chiu BC et al (1998) Physical activity, physical function, and the risk of breast cancer in a prospective study among elderly women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 53A:M251–M256

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chan MF, Dowsett M, Folkerd E et al (2007) Usual physical activity and endogenous sex hormones in postmenopausal women: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk population study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 16:900–905

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chang SC, Ziegler RG, Dunn B et al (2006) Association of energy intake and energy balance with postmenopausal breast cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 15: 334–341

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chen CL, White E, Malone KE et al (1997) Leisure-time physical activity in relation to breast cancer among young women (Washington, United States). Cancer Causes Control 8:77–84

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cirillo D, Rachiglio AM, la MR et al (2008) Leptin signaling in breast cancer: An overview. J Cell Biochem 105:956–964

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cleary MP, Grossmann ME (2009) Minireview: Obesity and breast cancer: the estrogen connection. Endocrinology 150:2537–2542

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cleary MP, Ray A, Rogozina OP et al (2009) Targeting the adiponectin:leptin ratio for postmenopausal breast cancer prevention. Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 1:329–357

    Google Scholar 

  • Colditz GA, Feskanich D, Chen WY et al (2003) Physical activity and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Br J Cancer 89:847–851

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coogan PF, Aschengrau A (1999) Occupational physical activity and breast cancer risk in the upper Cape Cod cancer incidence study. Am J Ind Med 36:279–285

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coussens LM, Werb Z (2002) Inflammation and cancer. Nature 420:860–867

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coyle YM (2008) Physical activity as a negative modulator of estrogen-induced breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 19:1021–1029

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cuff DJ, Meneilly GS, Martin A et al (2003) Effective exercise modality to reduce insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Diab Care 26:2977–2982

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cust AE, Stocks T, Lukanova A et al (2009) The influence of overweight and insulin resistance on breast cancer risk and tumour stage at diagnosis: A prospective study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 113:567–576

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dai Q, Gao YT, Shu XO et al (2009) Oxidative stress, obesity, and breast cancer risk: Results from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. J Clin Oncol 27:2482–2488

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dallal CM, Sullivan-Halley J, Ross RK et al (2007) Long-term recreational physical activity and risk of invasive and in situ breast cancer: The California teachers study. Arch Intern Med 167: 408–415

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dey S, Boffetta P, Mathews A et al (2009) Risk factors according to estrogen receptor status of breast cancer patients in Trivandrum, South India. Int J Cancer 125:1663–1670

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dirx MJ, Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA et al (2001) Baseline recreational physical activity, history of sports participation, and postmenopausal breast carcinoma risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer 92:1638–1649

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM et al (2009) American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:459–471

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dorgan JF, Brown C, Barrett M et al (1994) Physical activity and risk of breast cancer in the Framingham Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 139: 662–669

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dorn J, Vena J, Brasure J et al (2003) Lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:278–285

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dosemeci M, Hayes RB, Vetter R et al (1993) Occupational physical activity, socioeconomic status, and risks of 15 cancer sites in Turkey. Cancer Causes Control 4:313–321

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eliassen AH, Hankinson SE (2008) Endogenous hormone levels and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers: Prospective studies. Adv Exp Med Biol 630:148–165

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eliassen AH, Missmer SA, Tworoger SS et al (2006) Endogenous steroid hormone concentrations and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 98:1406–1415

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Enger SM, Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A et al (2000) Body size, physical activity, and breast cancer hormone receptor status: Results from two case-control studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 9:681–687

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P et al (2004) GLOBOCAN 2002: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide cancerbase no. 5. version 2.0. IARC Press, Lyon http://www-dep.iarc.fr

  • Fletcher O, Gibson L, Johnson N et al (2005) Polymorphisms and circulating levels in the insulin-like growth factor system and risk of breast cancer: A systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 14:2–19

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frank LL, Sorensen BE, Yasui Y et al (2005) Effects of exercise on metabolic risk variables in overweight postmenopausal women: A randomized clinical trial. Obes Res 13:615–625

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fraser GE, Shavlik D (1997) Risk factors, lifetime risk, and age at onset of breast cancer. Ann Epidemiol 7:375–382

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Friedenreich CM (2001) Physical activity and cancer prevention: From observational to intervention research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 10:287–301

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Friedenreich CM, Cust AE (2008) Physical activity and breast cancer risk: Impact of timing, type and dose of activity and population subgroup effects. Brit J Sports Med 42:636–647

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Friedenreich CM, Orenstein MR (2002) Physical activity and cancer prevention: Etiologic evidence and biological mechanisms. J Nutr 132: 3456S–3464S

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Friedenreich CM, Rohan TE (1995) Physical activity and risk of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 4:145–151

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Friedenreich CM, Bryant HE, Courneya KS (2001) Case-control study of lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 154: 336–347

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Friedenreich CM, Woolcott CG, McTieman A et al (2010a) Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial: sex hormone changes in a year-long exercise intervention among postmenopausal women. J Clin Oncol 28:1458–1466

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedenreich C, Woolcott CG, McTiernan A et al (2010b) Adiposity changes after a one year aerobic exercise intervention among postmenopausal women: randomized controlled trial. Int J Obes (in press)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gabbay KH (1982) Glycosylated hemoglobin and diabetes mellitus. Med Clin North Am 66: 1309–1315

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gammon MD, Schoenberg JB, Britton JA et al (1998) Recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk among women under age 45 years. Am J Epidemiol 147:273–280

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gao CM, Tajima K, Ding JH et al (2009) Body size, physical activity and risk of breast cancer. A case control study in Jangsu Province of China. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 10:877–881

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Giannopoulou I, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Carhart R et al (2005) Exercise is required for visceral fat loss in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1511–1518

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gill JM (2007) Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin resistance: A short update. Curr Opin Lipidol 18:47–52

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gilliland FD, Li YF, Baumgartner K et al (2001) Physical activity and breast cancer risk in hispanic and non-hispanic white women. Am J Epidemiol 154:442–450

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gunter MJ, Hoover DR, Yu H et al (2009) Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 101:48–60

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Han CZ, Du LL, Jing JX et al (2008) Associations among lipids, leptin, and leptin receptor gene Gin223Arg polymorphisms and breast cancer in China. Biol Trace Elem Res 126:38–48

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haslam DW, James WP (2005) Obesity. Lancet 366:1197–1209

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heikkila K, Ebrahim S, Lawlor DA (2007) A systematic review of the association between circulating concentrations of C reactive protein and cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health 61: 824–833

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hirose K, Hamajima N, Takezaki T et al (2003) Physical exercise reduces risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. Cancer Sci 94:193–199

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hofvind SS, Thoresen SO (2001) Physical activity and breast cancer. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 121: 1892–1895

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Howard RA, Leitzmann MF, Linet MS et al (2009) Physical activity and breast cancer risk among pre- and postmenopausal women in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort. Cancer Causes Control 20:323–333

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hu YH, Nagata C, Shimizu H et al (1997) Association of body mass index, physical activity, and reproductive histories with breast cancer: A case-control study in Gifu, Japan. Breast Cancer Res Treat 43: 65–72

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • IARC Working Group (2002) IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention, Volume 6: Weight control and physical activity. IARC, Lyon

    Google Scholar 

  • Irwin ML, Yasui Y, Ulrich CM et al (2003) Effect of exercise on total and intra-abdominal body fat in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 289:323–330

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ivy JL (1997) Role of exercise training in the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Sports Med 24:321–336

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E et al (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Ca-A Cancer J Clin 59:225–249

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • John EM, Horn-Ross PL, Koo J (2003) Lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population: The San Francisco Bay area breast cancer study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 12:1143–1152

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaaks R (1996) Nutrition, hormones, and breast cancer: Is insulin the missing link? Cancer Causes Control 7:605–625

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ et al (2005) Postmenopausal serum androgens, oestrogens and breast cancer risk: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Endocr Relat Cancer 12:1071–1082

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kabat GC, Kim M, Caan BJ et al (2009) Repeated measures of serum glucose and insulin in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 125:2704–2710

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kendall A, Folkerd EJ, Dowsett M (2007) Influences on circulating oestrogens in postmenopausal women: Relationship with breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103:99–109

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Key T, Appleby P, Barnes I et al (2002) Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: Reanalysis of nine prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:606–616

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klein S, Sheard NF, Pi-Sunyer X et al (2004) Weight management through lifestyle modification for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: Rationale and strategies: a statement of the American Diabetes Association, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Diab Care 27:2067–2073

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Knupfer H, Preiss R (2007) Significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in breast cancer (review). Breast Cancer Res Treat 102:129–135

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kruk J (2007a) Lifetime physical activity and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study. Cancer Detect Prev 31:18–28

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kruk J (2007b) Association of lifestyle and other risk factors with breast cancer according to menopausal status: A case-control study in the region of Western Pomerania (Poland). Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 8:513–524

    Google Scholar 

  • Kruk J, Aboul-Enein HY (2003) Occupational physical activity and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Detect Prev 27:187–192

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lahmann PH, Friedenreich C, Schuit AJ et al (2007) Physical activity and breast cancer risk: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 16:36–42

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lann D, LeRoith D (2008) The role of endocrine insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin in breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 13: 371–379

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Larsson SC, Mantzoros CS, Wolk A (2007) Diabetes mellitus and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 121:856–862

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lau DC, Douketis JD, Morrison KM et al (2007) 2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children [summary]. CMAJ 176: S1–S13

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lee YH, Pratley RE (2005) The evolving role of inflammation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Curr Diab Rep 5:70–75

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee IM, Cook NR, Rexrode KM et al (2001a) Lifetime physical activity and risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 85:962–965

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee IM, Rexrode KM, Cook NR et al (2001b) Physical activity and breast cancer risk: The Women’s Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 12:137–145

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee CG, Carr MC, Murdoch SJ et al (2009) Adipokines, inflammation, and visceral adiposity across the menopausal transition: A prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94: 1104–1110

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Leitzmann MF, Moore SC, Peters TM et al (2008) Prospective study of physical activity and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 10:R92

    Google Scholar 

  • Levi F, Pasche C, Lucchini F et al (1999) Occupational and leisure time physical activity and the risk of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 35: 775–778

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lorincz AM, Sukumar S (2006) Molecular links between obesity and breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 13:279–292

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Loucks, AB (2003) Energy availability, not body fatness, regulates reproductive function in women. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 31:144–148.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Luoto R, Latikka P, Pukkala E et al (2000) The effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk: A cohort study of 30, 548 women. Eur J Epidemiol 16:973–980

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Madigan MP, Troisi R, Potischman N et al (1998) Serum hormone levels in relation to reproductive and lifestyle factors in postmenopausal women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 9:199–207

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Magnusson CM, Roddam AW, Pike MC et al (2005) Body fatness and physical activity at young ages and the risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Br J Cancer 93:817–824

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marcus PM, Newman B, Moorman PG et al (1999) Physical activity at age 12 and adult breast cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control 10:293–302

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Margolis KL, Mucci L, Braaten T et al (2005) Physical activity in different periods of life and the risk of breast cancer: The Norwegian-Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 14:27–32

    Google Scholar 

  • Maruti SS, Willett WC, Feskanich D et al (2008) A prospective study of age-specific physical activity and premenopausal breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 100:728–737

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mathew A, Gajalakshmi V, Rajan B et al (2009) Physical activity levels among urban and rural women in south India and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study. Eur J Cancer Prev 18:368–376

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mathur N, Pedersen BK (2008) Exercise as a mean to control low-grade systemic inflammation. Mediat Inflamm 2008:1–6

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Matthews CE, Shu XO, Jin F et al (2001) Lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Br J Cancer 84:994–1001

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McTiernan A (2008) Mechanisms linking physical activity with cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 8:205–211

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McTiernan A, Stanford JL, Weiss NS et al (1996) Occurrence of breast cancer in relation to recreational exercise in women age 50-64 years. Epidemiology 7:598–604

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McTiernan A, Ulrich CM, Yancey D et al (1999) The Physical Activity for Total Health (PATH) Study: Rationale and design. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:1307–1312

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McTiernan A, Kooperberg C, White E et al (2003) Recreational physical activity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: The Women’s Health Initiative Cohort Study. JAMA 290:1331–1336

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McTiernan A, Tworoger SS, Rajan KB et al (2004a) Effect of exercise on serum androgens in postmenopausal women: A 12-month randomized clinical trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 13:1099–1105

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McTiernan A, Tworoger SS, Ulrich CM et al (2004b) Effect of exercise on serum estrogens in postmenopausal women: A 12-month randomized clinical trial. Cancer Res 64:2923–2928

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McTiernan A, Sorensen B, Yasui Y et al (2005) No effect of exercise on insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 in postmenopausal women: A 12-month randomized clinical trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 14:1020–1021

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mertens AJ, Sweeney C, Shahar E et al (2006) Physical activity and breast cancer incidence in middle-aged women: A prospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 97:209–214

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mezzetti M, La Vecchia C, Decarli A et al (1998) Population attributable risk for breast cancer: Diet, nutrition, and physical exercise. J Natl Cancer Inst 90:389–394

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Monninkhof EM, Elias SG, Vlems FA et al (2007a) Physical activity and breast cancer: A systematic review. Epidemiology 18:137–157

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Monninkhof EM, Peeters PH, Schuit AJ (2007b) Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE) study. BMC Public Health 7

    Google Scholar 

  • Monninkhof EM, Velthuis MJ, Peeters PH et al (2009) Effect of exercise on postmenopausal sex hormone levels and role of body fat: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 27: 4492–4499

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moradi T, Adami HO, Bergstrom R et al (1999) Occupational physical activity and risk for breast cancer in a nationwide cohort study in Sweden. Cancer Causes Control 10:423–430

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moradi T, Nyren O, Zack M et al (2000) Breast cancer risk and lifetime leisure-time and occupational physical activity (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 11:523–531

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moradi T, Adami HO, Ekbom A et al (2002) Physical activity and risk for breast cancer: A prospective cohort study among Swedish twins. Int J Cancer 100:76–81

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Neilson HK, Friedenreich CM, Brockton NT et al (2009) Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: Proposed biologic mechanisms and areas for future research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 18:11–27

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nicklas BJ, Wang X, You T et al (2009) Effect of exercise intensity on abdominal fat loss during calorie restriction in overweight and obese postmenopausal women: A randomized, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 89:1043–1052

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nicolas Diaz-Chico B, German RF, Gonzalez A et al (2007) Androgens and androgen receptors in breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 105:1–15

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nkondjock A, Robidoux A, Paredes Y et al (2006) Diet, lifestyle and BRCA-related breast cancer risk among French-Canadians. Breast Cancer Res Treat 98:285–294

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Office for National Statistics (2008) Annual Update: Cancer incidence and mortality in the United Kingdom and constituent countries, 2003–05. Health Stat Quart 40:91–97

    Google Scholar 

  • Orenstein MR, Friedenreich CM (2004) Review of physical activity and the IGF family. J Phys Activ Health 1:291–320

    Google Scholar 

  • Osborne CK, Bolan G, Monaco ME et al (1976) Hormone responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture: Effect of insulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73:4536–4540

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Patel AV, Callel EE, Bernstein L et al (2003) Recreational physical activity and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a large cohort of US women. Cancer Causes Control 14:519–529

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peplonska B, Lissowska J, Hartman TJ et al (2008) Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer. Epidemiology 19:226–236

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peters TM, Moore SC, Gierach GL et al (2009a) Intensity and timing of physical activity in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk: The prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. BMC Cancer 9(1):349

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peters TM, Schatzkin A, Gierach GL et al (2009b) Physical Activity and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 18:289–296

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pisani P (2008) Hyper-insulinaemia and cancer, meta-analyses of epidemiological studies. Arch Physiol Biochem 114:63–70

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pugeat M, Crave JC, Elmidani M et al (1991) Pathophysiology of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG): Relation to insulin. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 40:841–849

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M et al (2008) Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 371:569–578

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rintala PE, Pukkala E, Paakkulainen HT et al (2002) Self-experienced physical workload and risk of breast cancer. Scand J Work Environ Health 28:158–162

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rintala P, Pukkala E, Laara E et al (2003) Physical activity and breast cancer risk among female physical education and language teachers: A 34-year follow-up. Int J Cancer 107:268–270

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rockhill B, Willett WC, Hunter DJ et al (1999) A prospective study of recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk. Arch Intern Med 159:2290–2296

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rogers CJ, Colbert LH, Greiner JW et al (2008) Physical activity and cancer prevention: Pathways and targets for intervention. Sports Med 38:271–296

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rose DP, Komninou D, Stephenson GD (2004) Obesity, adipocytokines, and insulin resistance in breast cancer. Obes Rev 5:153–165

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ross R, Janssen I (1999) Is abdominal fat preferentially reduced in response to exercise-induced weight loss? Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:S568–S572

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rundle A (2005) Molecular epidemiology of physical activity and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 14:227–236

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ryan AS (2000) Insulin resistance with aging: Effects of diet and exercise. Sports Med 30:327–346

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt ME, Steindorf K, Mutschelknauss E et al (2008) Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: Effect modification by breast cancer subtypes and effective periods in life. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 17:3402–3410

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schmitz KH, Lin H, Sammel MD et al (2007) Association of physical activity with reproductive hormones: The Penn Ovarian Aging Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 16:2042–2047

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schmitz KH, Warren M, Rundle AG et al (2008) Exercise effect on oxidative stress is independent of change in estrogen metabolism. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 17:220–223

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schnohr P, Gronbaek M, Petersen L et al (2005) Physical activity in leisure-time and risk of cancer: 14-year follow-up of 28, 000 Danish men and women. Scand J Public Health 33:244–249

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Lee IM (1998) Physical activity and breast cancer risk in the College Alumni Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 9:433–439

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shin A, Matthews CE, Shu XO et al (2009) Joint effects of body size, energy intake, and physical activity on breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 113:153–161

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Shoff SM, Newcomb PA, Trentham-Dietz A et al (2000) Early-life physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: Effect of body size and weight change. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 9:591–595

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sieri S, Krogh V, Bolelli G et al (2009) Sex hormone levels, breast cancer risk, and cancer receptor status in postmenopausal women: The ORDET cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 18:169–176

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Silvera SA, Jain M, Howe GR et al (2006) Energy balance and breast cancer risk: A prospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 97:97–106

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Slattery ML, Edwards S, Murtaugh MA et al (2007) Physical activity and breast cancer risk among women in the southwestern United States. Ann Epidemiol 17:342–353

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sprague BL, Trentham-Dietz A, Newcomb PA et al (2007) Lifetime recreational and occupational physical activity and risk of in situ and invasive breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 16:236–243

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stattin P, Soderberg S, Biessy C et al (2004) Plasma leptin and breast cancer risk: A prospective study in northern Sweden. Breast Cancer Res Treat 86:191–196

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Steindorf K, Schmidt M, Kropp S et al (2003) Case-control study of physical activity and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women in Germany. Am J Epidemiol 157:121–130

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Surmacz E (2007) Obesity hormone leptin: A new target in breast cancer? Breast Cancer Res 9(1):301

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Suzuki S, Kojima S, Tokudome S et al (2008) Effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk: Findings of the Japan collaborative cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 17:3396–3401

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Szlosarek P, Charles KA, Balkwill FR (2006) Tumour necrosis factor-alpha as a tumour promoter. Eur J Cancer 42:745–750

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taioli E, Barone J, Wynder EL (1995) A case-control study on breast cancer and body mass. Eur J Cancer 31A:723–728

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tehard B, Friedenreich CM, Oppert JM et al (2006) Effect of physical activity on women at increased risk of breast cancer: Results from the E3N cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 15:57–64

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson HJ, Jiang W, Zhu Z (2009) Candidate mechanisms accounting for effects of physical activity on breast carcinogenesis. IUBMB Life 61:895–901

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thune I, Brenn T, Lund E et al (1997) Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer. NEJM 336:1269–1275

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tworoger SS, Eliassen AH, Kelesidis T et al (2007a) Plasma adiponectin concentrations and risk of incident breast cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1510–1516

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tworoger SS, Missmer SA, Eliassen AH et al (2007b) Physical activity and inactivity in relation to sex hormone, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor concentrations in premenopausal women - exercise and premenopausal hormones. Cancer Causes Control 18:743–752

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ueji M, Ueno E, Osei-Hyiaman D et al (1998) Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study of Japanese women. J Epidemiol 8:116–122

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Uray IP, Brown PH (2006) Prevention of breast cancer: Current state of the science and future opportunities. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 15:1583–1600

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Van Gils CH, Peeters PH, Schoenmakers MC et al (2009) Physical activity and endogenous sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women: A cross-sectional study in the Prospect-EPIC Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 18:377–383

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Velthuis MJ, Schuit AJ, Peeters PH et al (2009) Exercise program affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women. Menopause 16:777–784

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Verkasalo PK, Thomas HV, Appleby PN et al (2001) Circulating levels of sex hormones and their relation to risk factors for breast cancer: A cross-sectional study in 1092 pre- and postmenopausal women (United Kingdom). Cancer Causes Control 12:47–59

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Verloop J, Rookus MA, van der Kooy K et al (2000) Physical activity and breast cancer risk in women aged 20-54 years. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:128–135

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vona-Davis L, Howard-McNatt M, Rose DP (2007) Adiposity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in breast cancer. Obes Rev 8: 395–408

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Y, Lam KS, Xu A (2007) Adiponectin as a negative regulator in obesity-related mammary carcinogenesis. Cell Res 17:280–282

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Warburton DE, Katzmarzyk PT, Rhodes RE et al (2007) Evidence-informed physical activity guidelines for Canadian adults. Can J Public Health 98(Suppl 2):S16–S68

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wetmore CM, Ulrich CM (2006) Mechanisms associating physical activity with cancer incidence: Exercise and immune function. In: McTiernan A (ed) Cancer prevention and management through exercise and weight control. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL

    Google Scholar 

  • Woolcott CG, Courneya KS, Boyd NF et al (2010) Mammographic density change with one year of aerobic exercise among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 19:1112–1121

    Google Scholar 

  • World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: A Global perspective. American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Wyrwich KW, Wolinsky FD (2000) Physical activity, disability, and the risk of hospitalization for breast cancer among older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55:M418–M421

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wyshak G, Frisch RE (2000) Breast cancer among former college athletes compared to non-athletes: A 15-year follow-up. Br J Cancer 82: 726–730

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Xue F, Michels KB (2007) Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and breast cancer: A review of the current evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 86:s823–s835

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yager JD, Davidson NE (2006) Estrogen carcinogenesis in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 354:270–282

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yang D, Bernstein L, Wu AH (2003) Physical activity and breast cancer risk among Asian-American women in Los Angeles: A case-control study. Cancer 97:2565–2575

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • You T, Berman DM, Ryan AS et al (2004) Effects of hypocaloric diet and exercise training on inflammation and adipocyte lipolysis in obese postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1739–1746

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yu H, Rohan T (2000) Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:1472–1489

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christine M. Friedenreich .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2010 Springer Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Lynch, B.M., Neilson, H.K., Friedenreich, C.M. (2010). Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention. In: Courneya, K., Friedenreich, C. (eds) Physical Activity and Cancer. Recent Results in Cancer Research, vol 186. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04231-7_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04231-7_2

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-642-04230-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-04231-7

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)