PIP-Kinases as Key Regulators of Plant Function
The phosphoinositide pathway arose early in evolution and is conserved in eukaryotic organisms of all kingdoms. Phosphoinositides derive from phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) by sequential phosphorylation of the lipid head group and can interact with various protein partners to regulate their biochemical activity or subcellular localization. This chapter is concerned with PIP-kinases, the enzymes producing PtdIns-bisphosphates with regulatory function, such as the well-characterized PtdIns(4,5)P2 or the less-well understood PtdIns(3,4)P2 and PtdIns(3,5)P2. In recent years, the study of plant PIP-kinases has revealed new targets for perturbing plant phosphoinositide metabolism and enabled functional investigations on the roles of PtdIns-bisphosphates, including involvement in the regulation of cell polarity, guard cell function, defense responses, and stress signaling. Together with new techniques for lipid analysis and new tools for the visualization of specific lipids, these recent advances have opened the field to exciting discoveries, indicating central roles for PIP-kinases and phosphoinositide signaling in plant function and development.
KeywordsPollen Tube Root Hair Polar Growth Root Hair Cell Phosphoinositide Signaling
We thank Wendy Boss, Imara Perera, and Yang Ju Im (North Carolina State University) for helpful discussion. We also gratefully acknowledge the financial support through an Emmy Noether grant from the German Research Foundation (DFG, to I. H.).
- Elge S, Brearley C, Xia HJ, Kehr J, Xue HW, Mueller-Roeber B (2001) An Arabidopsis inositol phospholipid kinase strongly expressed in procambial cells: synthesis of PtdIns(4, 5)P2 and PtdIns(3, 4, 5)P3 in insect cells by 5-phosphorylation of precursors. Plant J 26:561–571CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hilgemann DW, Feng S, Nasuhoglu C (2001) The complex and intriguing lives of PIP2 with ion channels and transporters. Sci STKE 2001:RE19Google Scholar
- Kilian J, Whitehead D, Horak J, Wanke D, Weinl S, Batistic O, D'Angelo C, Bornberg-Bauer E, Kudla J, Harter K (2007) The AtGenExpress global stress expression data set: protocols, evaluation and model data analysis of UV-B light, drought and cold stress responses. Plant J 50:347–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McEwen RK, Dove SK, Cooke FT, Painter GF, Holmes AB, Shisheva A, Ohya Y, Parker PJ, Michell RH (1999) Complementation analysis in PtdInsP kinase-deficient yeast mutants demonstrates that Schizosaccharomyces pombe and murine Fab1p homologues are phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinases. J Biol Chem 274:33905–33912CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mongrand S, Morel J, Laroche J, Claverol S, Carde JP, Hartmann MA, Bonneu M, Simon-Plas F, Lessire R, Bessoule JJ (2004) Lipid rafts in higher plant cells: purification and characterization of Triton X-100-insoluble microdomains from tobacco plasma membrane. J Biol Chem 279:36277–36286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar