Diacylglycerol Pyrophosphate, A Novel Plant Signaling Lipid
Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) is a phosphorylated form of phosphatidic acid (PA) found in plants and yeast but not in mammals. DGPP is a minor lipid that accumulates transiently under various abiotic stresses and during biotic interactions. DGPP formation may be a way of attenuating PA content, but DGPP itself might also be a signaling lipid. DGPP is the product of the phosphorylation of PA catalyzed by PA kinase (PAK). Unfortunately, studies describing the role of PAK are limited as gene encoding PAK has not been identified yet. DGPP is dephosphorylated by lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) activity to produce PA. LPPs with DGPP phosphatase activity are found in a wide variety of organisms including bacteria, yeast, plants, and mammals. In Arabidopsis, four genes encoding LPPs have been identified, and a role for DGPP in abscisic acid signaling is becoming apparent.
KeywordsPhosphatidic Acid Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatidyl Choline Diacylglycerol Kinase Abscisic Acid Signaling
We acknowledge Prof. Emile Miginiac and Dr Bruno Sotta for critical reading of the manuscript. We thank Dr Régis Maldiney for his help in drawing the figures. This work was supported by grants from Ministère de la Recherche et de l’Enseignement Supérieur-France to SP and CZ.
- Assmann SM (2002) Heterotrimeric and unconventional GTP binding proteins in plant cell signaling. Plant Cell 14(Suppl):355–373Google Scholar
- Dillon DA, Wu WI, Riedel B, Wissing JB, Dowhan W, Carman GM (1996) The Escherichia coli pgpB gene encodes for a diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase activity. J Biol Chem 29:30548–30553Google Scholar
- Finkelstein RR, Rock CD (2002) Abscisic acid biosynthesis and response. In: Somerville CR, Meyerowitz EM (eds) The Arabidopsis book. American Society of Plant Biologists, Rockville, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
- Oshiro J, Rangaswamy S, Chen X, Han GS, Quinn JE, Carman GM (2000) Regulation of the DPP1-encoded diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) phosphatase by inositol and growth phase. Inhibition of DGPP phosphatase activity by CDP-diacylglycerol and activation of phosphatidylserine synthase activity by DGPP. J Biol Chem 275:40887–40896CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pical C, Westergren T, Dove SK, Larsson C, Sommarin M (1999) Salinity and hyperosmotic stress induce rapid increases in phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate, diacylglycerol pyrophosphate, and phosphatidylcholine in Arabidopsis thaliana cells. J Biol Chem 274:38232–38240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toke DA, Bennett WL, Dillon DA, Wu WI, Chen X, Ostrander DB, Oshiro J, Cremesti A, Voelker DR, Fischl AS, Carman GM (1998a) Isolation and characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DPP1 gene encoding diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase. J Biol Chem 273:3278–3284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar